Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of English, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of English, Allameh Tabatabai' University, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of English, Faculty of Humanities, Garmsar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Garmsar, Iran


This paper deals with the contributions of a language teacher education model by Kumaravadivelu (2012) known as KARDS (knowing, analyzing, recognizing, doing, and seeing) to Iranian English as a foreign language (EFL) university teachers’ professional identity reconstruction. The researchers used purposive sampling to select participants. A KARDS questionnaire designed, constructed, and validated by the researchers was used to group twenty teachers into a more KARDS-oriented group and a less-KARDS oriented group. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed that the questionnaire was both reliable and valid. Pre-course interview, post-course interview, teacher educator’s and teachers’ reflective journals, and class discussions were used to collect data. After the pre-course interview, there was a treatment during which teachers were familiarized with KARDS. Then, Grounded Theory was used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that there were two big shifts from “uncertainty of practice to certainty of practice” and “the use of fewer macro-strategies to the use of more macro-strategies” in teachers’ professional identities in both groups. The changes were similar and/or the same in nature but not in quantity, and they should be emphasized and included in teacher education programs. The findings may drive teacher education programs, teacher educators, and teachers to welcome and embrace uncertainty and confusion in classrooms. Suggestions to reduce “uncertainty of practice” by teacher education programs and teacher educators are presented in this paper.


Abednia, A. (2012). Teachers’ professional identity: Contributions of a critical EFL teacher education course in Iran. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28, 706-717. doi:10.1016/j.tate.2012.02.005
Ahmad, H., Latada, F., Nubli Wahab, M., Shah, S. R., & Khan, Kh. (2018). Shaping professional identity through professional development: A retrospective study of TESOL professionals. International Journal of English Linguistics, 8(6), 37-51. doi:10.5539/ijel.v8n6p37
Akbari, R. (2007). Reflections on reflection: A critical appraisal of reflective practice in L2 teacher education. System, 35, 192-207.
Akbari, R., & Dadvand, B. (2011). Does formal teacher education make a difference? A comparison of pedagogical thought units of BA versus MA teachers. The modern language journal, 95(1), 44-60.
Arbuckle, J. L. (2017). IBM® SPSS® Amos™ 25: User’s guide. New York: IBM Corporation.
Beauchamp, C., & Thomas, L. (2009). Understanding teacher identity: An overview of issues in the literature and implications for teacher education. Cambridge Journal of Education, 39(2), 175-189.
Biria, R., & Haghighi Irani, F. (2015). Exploring contributions of reflective discussions to EFL pre-service teachers’ professional identity. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World, 10(4), 47-66.
Borg, S. (2003). Teacher cognition in language teaching: A review of research on what language teachers think, know, believe, and do. Language Teaching, 36(2), 81-109.
Borg, S. (2011). The impact of in-service teacher education on language teachers’ beliefs. System, 39(3), 370-380.
Byrne, B. M. (2001). Structural equation modeling with Amos: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
Cochran-Smith, M., Shakman, K., Jong, C., Terrell, D. G., Barnatt, J., & McQuillan, P. (2009). Good and just teaching: The case for social justice in teacher education. American Journal of Education, 115(3), 347-377.
Crookes, G., & Lehner, A. (1998). Aspects of process in an ESL critical pedagogy teacher education course. TESOL Quarterly, 32(2), 319-328.
Dörnyei, Z., & Taguchi, T. (2010). Questionnaires in second language research: Construction,   administration, and processing. New York: Routledge.
Ebadi, S., & Gheisari, N. (2016). The role of consciousness-raising through critical reflection in teachers’ professional development: A sociocultural perspective. Cogent Education, 3, 1-14. Retrieved from
Floden, R. E., & Buchmann, M. (1993). Between routines and anarchy: Preparing teachers for uncertainty. Oxford Review of Education, 19(3), 373-382.
Floden, R. E., & Clark, C. M. (1988). Preparing teachers for uncertainty. Teachers College Record, 89(4), 505-524.
Freeman, D., & Johnson, K. E. (1998). Reconceptualizing the knowledge-base of language teacher education. TESOL Quarterly, 32(3), 397-417.
Freire, P. (2005). Teachers as cultural workers: Letters to teachers who dare teach. Cambridge: Westview Press.
Giroux, H. A. (1992). Border crossings: Cultural workers and the politics of education. New York: Routledge.
Goljani Amirkhiz, A., Moinzadeh, A., & Eslami-Rasekh, A. (2018). The effect of critical pedagogy-based instruction on altering EFL teachers’ viewpoints regarding teaching-learning practices and localizing cultural notes. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature, 7(5), 212-220. Retrieved from http://dx.doi. org/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.7n.5p.212.
Gordon, M. (2006). Welcoming confusion, embracing uncertainty: Educating teacher candidates in an age of certitude. Paideusis, 15(2), 15-25.
Griffiths, V. (2000). The reflective dimension in teacher education. International Journal of Educational Research, 33(5), 539-555.
Hawkins, M. R. (2004). Social apprenticeships through mediated learning in language teacher education. In M. R. Hawkins (Ed.), Language learning and teacher education: A sociocultural approach. Clevedon: Multilingualm Matters.
Hawkins, M., & Norton, B. (2009). Critical language teacher education. In A. Burns & J. Richards (Eds.), Cambridge guide to second language teacher education (pp. 30-39). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jay, J. K., & Johnson, K. L. (2002). Capturing complexity: A typology of reflective practice for teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 18(1), 73-85.
Johnson, K. E. (2006). The sociocultural turn and its challenges for second language teacher education. TESOL Quarterly, 40(1), 235-257.
Johnson, K. E., & Golombek, P. R. (Eds.). (2011). Research on second language teacher education: A sociocultural perspective on professional development. New York: Routledge.
Kelchtermans, G. (1993). Getting the story, understanding the lives: From career stories to teachers’ professional development. Teaching and Teacher Education, 9(5/6), 443-456.
Khatib, M., & Miri, M. (2016). Cultivating multivocality in language classrooms: Contribution of critical pedagogy-informed teacher education. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, 13(2), 98-131. doi: 10.1080/15427587.2015.1137197
King, E. T. (2013). Review of language teacher education for a global society: A modular model for knowing, analyzing, recognizing, doing, and seeing. TESL-EJ, 16(4).
Korthagen, F. A. (2004). In search of the essence of a good teacher: Towards a more holistic approach in teacher education. Teaching and teacher education, 20(1), 77-97.
Kubanyiova, M. (2012). Teacher development in action: Understanding language teachers’ conceptual change. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Kumaravadivelu, B. (2003). Beyond methods: Macrostrategies for language teaching. New Jersey: Yale University Press.
Kumaravadivelu, B. (2006). Understanding language teaching: From method to post method. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Kumaravadivelu, B. (2012). Language teacher education for a global society. New York: Taylor & Francis.
Lin, A. Y. M. (2004). Introducing a critical pedagogical curriculum: A feminist reflexive account. In B. Norton & K. Toohey (Eds.), Critical pedagogies and language learning (pp. 271-290). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Maseko, P. B. N. (2018). Transformative praxis through critical consciousness: A conceptual exploration of a decolonial access with success agenda. Educational Research for Social Change, 7(0), 78-90. Retrieved from
McDonald, J. P. (1986). Raising the teacher’s voice and the ironic role of theory. Harvard Educational Review, 56, 355-378.
Nguyen, H. T. (2008). Conceptions of teaching by five Vietnamese American pre-service teachers. Journal of Language, Identity and Education, 7(2), 113-136.
Pallant, J. (2016). SPSS survival manual. Berkshire: Open University Press.
Pennycook, A. (2004). Critical moments in a TESOL praxicum. In B. Norton & K. Toohey (Eds.), Critical pedagogies and language learning (pp. 327-345). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pituch, K. A., & Stevens, J. (2016). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences: Analyses with SAS and IBM’s SPSS. New York: Routledge.
Richards, J. C. (2008). Second language teacher education today. RELC Journal, 39(2), 158-177.
Roberts, J. (1998). Language teacher education. London: Arnold.
Sardabi, N., Biria, R., & Golestan, A. A. (2018). Reshaping teacher professional identity through critical pedagogy-informed teacher education. International Journal of Instruction, 11(3), 617-634. Retrieved from
Scheffler, I. (1984). On the education of policy makers. Harvard Educational Review, 54, 152-165.
Singh, G., & Richards, J. C. (2006). Teaching and learning in the language teacher education course room: A critical sociocultural perspective. RELC Journal, 37(2), 149-175.
Smagorinsky, P., Cook, L. S., Moore, C., Jackson, A. Y., & Fry, P. G. (2004). Tensions in learning to teach: Accommodation and development of a teaching identity. Journal of Teacher Education, 55(1), 8-24.
Steenekamp, K., van der Merwe, M., & Salieva Mehmedova, A. (2018). Enabling the development of student teacher professional identity through vicarious learning during an educational excursion. South African Journal of Education, 38(1), 1-8. Retrieved from https://doi. org/10.15700/saje.v38n1a1407.   
Stein, P. (2004). Re-sourcing resources: Pedagogy, history and loss in a Johannesburg classroom. In M. R. Hawkins (Ed.), Language learning and teacher education: A sociocultural approach. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Sutherland, L., Howard, S., & Markauskaite, L. (2010). Professional identity creation: Examining the development of beginning pre-service teachers’ understanding of their work as teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26(3), 455-465.
Tabachnhick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2014). Using multivariate statistics: Pearson new international edition. Harlow: Pearson.
Toohey, K., & Waterstone, B. (2004). Negotiating expertise in an action research community. In B. Norton & K. Toohey (Eds.), Critical pedagogies and language learning (pp. 291-310). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Trent, J. (2010). Teacher education as identity construction: Insights from action research. Journal of Education for Teaching, 36(2), 153-168.
Tsui, A. B. M. (2007). Complexities of identity formation: A narrative inquiry of an ESL teacher. TESOL Quarterly, 41(4), 657-680.
Wallace, M. (1995). Training foreign language teachers: A reflective approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Yazan, B. (2018). Toward identity-oriented teacher education: Critical auto-ethnographic narrative. TESOL Journal, 1-15. doi: 10.1002/ tesj.  388