Relationship between classroom environment, teacher behavior, cognitive and emotional engagement, and state motivation

Document Type: Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, University of Isfahan

2 MA Student of TEFL, University of Isfahan


This study investigated the relationship between classroom environment and teacher behavior, and EFL (English as a foreign language) learners’ engagement and state motivation. To do so, 110 intermediate Iranian EFL learners with an average age of 18.37 were asked to complete What is Happening Inside the Classroom scale (WIHIC), Questionnaire for Teacher Interaction (QTI), Student Engagement Instrument (SEI), and Student State Motivation scale (SMS). The results of statistical analysis showed that there was a moderate relationship between all aspects of classroom environment (student cohesiveness, teacher support, equity, involvement, cooperation, and task orientation) and learners’ engagement (emotional and cognitive engagement). Moreover, there was a relationship between some aspects of classroom environment (student cohesiveness, task orientation, cooperation, and involvement) and state motivation. However, there was no relationship between teacher behavior, learners’ engagement, and state motivation. Implications are discussed and avenues for future research are outlined.


Article Title [Persian]

بررسی رابطه بین شرایط کلاس درس و رفتار معلم و تمایل شناختی و عاطفی فراگیران به مشارکت در فعالیت های کلاسی و انگیزه بیرونی آنها

Authors [Persian]

  • محمد امیریوسفی 1
  • زهرا امیریان 1
  • عطیه انصاری 2
1 استادیار گروه آموزش زبان انگلیسی، دانشگاه اصفهان
Abstract [Persian]

هدف از این مطالعه، بررسی رابطه بین شرایط کلاس درس و رفتار معلم و تمایل شناختی و عاطفی فراگیران به مشارکت در فعالیت های کلاسی  و انگیزه بیرونی آنها بود. بدین منظور، 110 فراگیر ایرانی سطح متوسط زبان انگلیسی با میانگین سنی 18.37 پرسشنامه "آنچه در کلاس درس رخ می دهد" (WIHIC)، پرسشنامه "تعامل معلم" ( QTI)، پرسشنامه "مشارکت زبان آموز" (SEI)، و پرسشنامه "انگیزه بیرونی زبان آموز" (SMS) را پر نمودند. نتایج تحلیل آماری نشان داد که رابطه قابل قبولی بین همه جنبه های شرایط کلاس درس (انسجام و وحدت دانش آموزان، میزان حمایت معلم، میزان مساوات بین دانش آموزان، مشارکت دانش آموزان در فعالیت های کلاسی و تمایل به انجام تکالیف) و تمایل شناختی و عاطفی فراگیران به مشارکت در فعالیت های کلاسی وجود داشت. بعلاوه، بین برخی از جنبه های شرایط کلاس (انسجام و وحدت دانش آموزان، تمایل به انجام تکالیف، و تمایل به مشارکت در فعالیت های کلاسی) و انگیزه بیرونی زبان آموزان نیز رابطه وجود داشت در حالیکه هیچ رابطه ای بین رفتار معلم، تمایل به مشارکت زبان آموزان در در فعالیت های کلاسی و انگیزه بیرونی آنها یافت نشد.

Keywords [Persian]

  • رفتار بین فردی معلم
  • شرایط کلاس درس
  • مشارکت
  • انگیزه بیرونی
Anderson, A., Hamilton, R. J., & Hattie, J. (2004). Classroom climate and motivated behavior in secondary schools. Learning environments research, 7(3), 211-225.
Appleton, J. J., Christenson, S. L., Kim, D., & Reschly, A. L. (2006).
Measuring cognitive and psychological engagement: Validation of the Student Engagement Instrument. Journal of School Psychology, 44(5), 427-445.
Baralt, M., Gurzynski-Weiss, L., & Kim, Y. (2016). The effects of task complexity and classroom environment on learners’ engagement with the language. In M. Sato, & S. Ballinger (Eds.), Peer interaction and second language learning: Pedagogical potential and research agenda (pp. 209–240). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Blanco, K. (2015). Exploring the interplay between psychosocial learning environmental factors, motivation, and self-regulation in 9th-12th grade science (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The University of Houston-Clear Lake, USA.
Brekelmans, J. M. G., Wubbels, T., & Den Brok, P. J. (2002). Teacher experience and the teacher–student relationship in the classroom environment. In S.C. Goh & M.S. Khine (Eds), .Studies in educational learning environments: An international perspective (pp. 73-100), Singapore: World Scientific.
Brok, P., Brekelmans, M., Levy, J., & Wubbels, T. (2005). The effect of teacher interpersonal behavior on students' subject-specific motivation. The Journal of Classroom Interaction, 40 (2), 20-33.
Brophy, J. (1987). Synthesis of research on strategies for motivating students to learn. Educational leadership, 45(2), 40-48.
Christophel, D. M. (1990). The relationships among teacher immediacy behaviors, student motivation, and learning. Communication education, 39 (4), 323-340.
Chua, S. L., Wong, A. F., & Chen, D. T. (2009). Associations between Chinese Language Classroom Environments and Students' Motivation to Learn the Language. Australian Journal of Educational & Developmental Psychology, 9, 53-64.
den Brok, P., Fisher, D., Rickards, T., & Bull, E. (2006). Californian science students' perceptions of their classroom learning environments. Educational Research and Evaluation, 12(1), 3-25.
den Brok, P., Fisher, D., & Scott, R. (2005). The importance of teacher interpersonal behaviour for student attitudes in Brunei primary science classes. International Journal of Science Education27(7), 765-779.
Den Brok, P., Brekelmans, M., & Wubbels, T. (2004). Interpersonal teacher behaviour and student outcomes. School effectiveness and school improvement15(3-4), 407-442.
Dorman, J. P., Aldridge, J. M., & Fraser, B. J. (2006). Using Students' Assessment of Classroom Environment to Develop a Typology of Secondary School Classrooms. International Education Journal7(7), 906-915.
Dörnyei, Z. (1994). Motivation and motivating in the foreign language classroom. The modern language journal, 78(3), 273-284.
Dörnyei, Z., Henry, A., & MacIntyre, P. D. (Eds.). (2014). Motivational dynamics in language learning (Vol. 81). Multilingual Matters.
Eddy-U, M. (2015). Motivation for participation or non-participation in group tasks: A dynamic systems model of task-situated willingness to communicate. System50, 43-55.
Fraser, B. J. (1998). Classroom environment instruments: Development, validity, and applications. Learning Environments Research, 1, 7-33.
Fraser, B. J. (1986). Classroom environment. London: Croom Helm.
Fraser, B. J. & Goh, S. C. (1998). Teacher interpersonal behavior, Classroom environment and student outcomes in primary mathematics in Singapore. Learning Environments Research, 1, 199-229.
Fraser, B. J., McRobbie, C. J., & Fisher, D. L. (1996, April). Development, validation and use of personal and class forms of a new classroom environment instrument. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York.
Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. H. (2004). School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of educational research74(1), 59-109.
Furrer, C. J., Skinner, E. A., & Pitzer, J. R. (2014). The influence of teacher and peer relationships on students’ classroom engagement and everyday motivational resilience. National Society for the Study of Education, 113(1), 101-123.
Gunuc, S. (2014). The relationships between student engagement and their academic achievement. International Journal on New Trends in Education and Their Implications5(4), 216-231.
Handelsman, M. M., Briggs, W. L., Sullivan, N., & Towler, A. (2005). A measure of college student course engagement. The Journal of Educational Research, 98(3), 184-192.
Johnson, B., & McClure, R. (2004). Validity and reliability of a shortened, revised version of the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES). Learning Environments Research, 7(1), 65-80.
Kraft, M. A., & Dougherty, S. M. (2013). The effect of teacher–family communication on student engagement: Evidence from a randomized field experiment. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness6(3), 199-222.
Lee, J. S. (2014). The relationship between student engagement and academic performance: Is it a myth or reality?. The Journal of Educational Research107(3), 177-185.
Lin, Y., Durbin, J. M., & Rancer, A. S. (2017). Perceived instructor argumentativeness, verbal aggressiveness, and classroom communication climate in relation to student state motivation and math anxiety. Communication Education66(3), 330-349.
Lin, Y., Durbin, J. M., & Rancer, A. S. (2017). Perceived instructor argumentativeness, verbal aggressiveness, and classroom communication climate in relation to student state motivation and math anxiety. Communication Education66(3), 330-349.
MacAulay, D. J. (1990). Classroom environment: A literature review. Educational Psychology10(3), 239-253.
Mahmud, Z., & Yaacob, M. (2007). The relationship of teacher’s immediacy to student motivation and student learning: A literature analysis. Jurnal Pendidikan, 32, 91-101.
Maulana, R., Opdenakker, M. C., den Brok, P., & Bosker, R. J. (2012). Teacher–student interpersonal behavior in secondary mathematics classes in Indonesia. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 10(1), 21-47.
Mazer, J. P. (2013). Associations among teacher communication behaviors, student interest, and engagement: A validity test. Communication Education62(1), 86-96.
Misbah, Z., Gulikers, J., Maulana, R., & Mulder, M. (2015). Teacher interpersonal behaviour and student motivation in competence-based vocational education: Evidence from Indonesia. Teaching and Teacher Education50, 79-89.
Mozgalina, A. (2015). More or less choice? The influence of choice on task motivation and task engagement. System, 49, 120–132.
Myers, S. A., Goodboy, A. K., & Members of COMM 600. (2014). College student learning, motivation, and satisfaction as a function of effective instructor communication behaviors. Southern Communication Journal79(1), 14-26.
Newmann, F., Wehlage, G. G., & Lamborn, S. D. (1992). The significance and sources of student engagement. In F.
Newmann (Ed.), Student engagement and achievement in American secondary schools (pp. 11-39). New York: Teachers College Press.
Nicolson, M., & Adams, H. (2010). The languages classroom: place of comfort or obstacle course?. Language Learning Journal38(1), 37-49.
Nouri, A. (2015). The Relationship between Iranian EFL Teachers’ Behavior and Academic Achievement of High School Students. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 6(3), 574-580.
Philp, J., & Duchesne, S. (2016). Exploring engagement in tasks in the language classroom. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 36, 50–72.
Phung, L. (2017). Task preference, affective response, and engagement in L2 use in a US university context. Language Teaching Research, 21(6), 751-766.
Rahimi, M., & Karkami, F. H. (2015). The Role of Teachers' Classroom Discipline in Their Teaching Effectiveness and Students' Language Learning Motivation and Achievement: A Path Method. Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research3(1), 57-82.
Reeve, J., Jang, H., Carrell, D., Jeon, S., & Barch, J. (2004). Enhancing students' engagement by increasing teachers' autonomy support. Motivation and emotion28(2), 147-169.
Ryan, A. M., & Patrick, H. (2001). The classroom social environment and changes in adolescents’ motivation and engagement during middle school. American Educational Research Journal38(2), 437-460.
Sagayadevan, V., & Jeyaraj, S. (2012). The role of emotional engagement in lecturer-student interaction and the impact on academic outcomes of student achievement and learning. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning12(3), 1-30.
Shernoff, D. J., Tonks, S., & Anderson, B. G. (2014). The impact of the learning environment on student engagement in high school classrooms, National society for the study of education, 113(1), 166-177.
Skinner, E., Furrer, C., Marchand, G., & Kindermann, T. (2008). Engagement and disaffection in the classroom: Part of a larger motivational dynamic?. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(4), 765.
Smart, J. B. (2009). Teacher-student interactions and domain-specific motivation: The relationship between students' perceptions of teacher interpersonal behavior and motivation in middle school science (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Clemson University, USA.
van Uden, J. M., Ritzen, H., & Pieters, J. M. (2014). Engaging students: The role of teacher beliefs and interpersonal teacher behavior in fostering student engagement in vocational education. Teaching and Teacher Education37, 21-32.
Velayutham, S., & Aldridge, J. M. (2013). Influence of psychosocial classroom environment on students’ motivation and self-regulation in science learning: A structural equation modeling approach. Research in Science Education, 43(2), 507-527.
Webster, C., Mîndrilă, D., & Weaver, G. (2013). Affective learning profiles in compulsory high school physical education: An instructional communication perspective. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education32(1), 78-99.
Wei, L.SH. (2011). Relationship between Students’ Perceptions of Classroom Environment and their Motivation in Learning English Language. International journal of humanities and social science. 1(21), 240-250.
Wei, M., den Brok, P., & Zhou, Y. (2009). Teacher interpersonal behavior and student achievement in English as a foreign language classrooms in China. Learning Environments Research, 12(3), 157-174.
Wei, M., & Onsawad, A. (2007). English teachers' actual and ideal interpersonal behavior and students' outcomes in secondary schools of Thailand. The Journal of Asia TEFL, 4(2), 95-121.
Wonglorsaichon, B., Wongwanich, S., & Wiratchai, N. (2014). The influence of students school engagement on learning achievement: A structural equation modeling analysis. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences116, 1748-1755.
Wubbels, T., & Levy, J. (1991). A comparison of interpersonal behaviour of Dutch and American teachers. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 15, 1–18.
Wubbels, T., Créton, H., & Hooymayers, H. (1985). Discipline problems of beginning teachers, interactional teacher behavior mapped out. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL, March.
Yang, G., Badri, M., Al Rashedi, A., Almazroui, K., Qalyoubi, R., & Nai, P. (2017). The effects of classroom and school environments on student engagement: the case of high school students in Abu Dhabi public schools. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education47(2), 223-239.
Young, J. (2014). Encouragement in the Classroom: How Do I Help Students Stay Positive and Focused?(ASCD Arias). ASCD.
Zandvliet, D. B., & Fraser, B. J. (2004). Learning environments in information and communications technology classrooms. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 13(1), 97-123.