Document Type : Research Paper


1 English Language and Literature Department, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran

2 English Language and Literature Department, Allameh Tabataba’I University, Tehran, Iran


The present study aimed at constructing a reliable and valid instrument that could explore EFL learners’ perceptions of culture management. A focus group was held with EFL university students familiar with culture-related concepts, and the themes were extracted from a detailed analysis of transcripts. An extensive literature review and interviews with applied linguistics experts were conducted to generate the CM Questionnaire items. Subsequently, the draft questionnaire was piloted with 251 Iranian undergraduate EFL students studying at two public universities in Iran. An exploratory and a confirmatory factor analysis were run, and the overall factor loading estimates illustrated a satisfactory level of convergent validity for the developed Instrument. The satisfactory levels of factor loading and construct validity test supported the convergent validity of CM factors and their related items. The explored factors included Cultural Communication, Cultural Leadership, Cultural Awareness, Cultural Performance, and Culturally Relevant Teaching, with Cultural Communication as the most meaningful factor. The findings demonstrated that CMQ could be a valid and reliable instrument for investigating culture management perceptions. The implications of the study for EFL teachers, learners, and other stakeholders are also discussed along with some recommendations


Main Subjects

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