Exploring the Effect of Paper-and-pencil vs. Blog JW on L2 Writing in terms of Accuracy, Fluency, Lexical Complexity, and Syntactic Complexity

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 Department of English Language and Literature, Faculty of Literature, Alzahra University

2 professor of English Language and Literature, alzahra University

3 Associate Professor of English Language and Literature, Alzahra University.

10.22034/elt.2020.10685

Abstract

In the field of second/foreign language learning, Journal Writing (JW) has been used as a tool for self-expression, acknowledged for its multiple benefits with regard to various aspects of language learning. With the advancements of technology, however, few studies have addressed the potentials of internet-based platforms such as blogs in the practice of JW. The present study, therefore, has attempted to juxtapose the traditional paper-and-pencil mode of JW with Blog JW to explore the potential impacts on L2 learners’ writing skill. To this end, four elements of accuracy, fluency, lexical, as well as syntactic complexity were examined in the participants’ writing samples through relevant measures. To analyze the data, (M)ANCOVAs and (M)ANOVAs were conducted, the results of which are summarized and presented. The general conclusion of the study was that, JW, in particular, in the form of blogging has the potential of enhancing the quality of language learners’ writing.

Keywords


Article Title [فارسی]

تاثیر ژورنال نویسی در دو شکل کاغذی و وبلاگ نویسی بر مهارت نوشتاری از لحاظ صحت، فصاحت، پیچیدگی معنایی و پیچیدگی ساختاری

Authors [فارسی]

  • شهره تیمورنژاد 1
  • الهه ستوده نما 2
  • سیده سوسن مرندی 3
1 دانشجوی دکتری، دانشکده زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی، دانشگاه الزهرا (س)
2 استاد دانشکده زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی ، دانشگاه الزهرا (س)
3 دانشیار دانشکده زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی، دانشگاه الزهرا (س)
Armstrong, K., & Retterer, O. (2008). Blogging as L2 writing: A case study. AACE Journal,16(3), 233-251.
Bouldin, A. S., Holmes, E. R., &Fortenberry, M. L. (2006). “Blogging” about course concepts: using technology for reflective journaling in a communications class. Am J Pharm Educ. 70-84.
Cahyono, B.Y. (1997). Effectiveness of journal writing in supporting skills in writing English essay. Journal of Education, 4(1), 310-318.
Castellanos, J. (2008). Journal writing and its benefits in an upper intermediate EFL class. Profile, 9(1),111-128.
Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
Cooper, J.W. (2006). Journal writing in career and technical education: A tool to promote critical thinking skills. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 43(2), 71-81.
El-Koumy, A. S. A. (1998). Effect of dialogue journal writing on EFL students’ speaking skill. Retrieved from ERIC database.
Fellner, T., & Apple, M. (2006). Developing writing fluency and lexical complexity with blogs. The JALT CALL Journal, 2(1), 15-26. Retrieved from http://journal. jaltcall.org/articles/2_1_Fellner.pdf.
Forsman, S. (1985). Writing to learn means learning to think. In A. R. Gere (Ed.), Roots in the sawdust: Writing to learn across the disciplines (pp. 162-174). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Foster, P. & Skehan, P. (1996). The influence of planning and task-type on second language performance. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 18, 299–324.
Gholami Mehrdad, A. (2008). The effect of dialogue journal writing on EFL students’ writing skill. The Journal of applied linguistics, 1(1), 34-44.
Hemmati, F., & Soltanpour, F. (2012). A comparison of the effects of reflective learning portfolios and dialogue journal writing on Iranian EFL learners’ accuracy in writing performance. English Language Teaching, 5(11), 16-28.
Kurnia, I. (2015).The effectiveness of blog toward students’ accuracy and complexity in writing narrative texts. Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University, Jakarta.
Liao, M. & Wong, C. (2007). Effects of dialogue journals on L2 students’ writing fluency, reflections, anxiety, and motivation. Reflections on English Language Teaching, 9(2), 139-170.
Lu, X. (2010). Automatic analysis of syntactic complexity in second language writing. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 15(4), 474-496.
Lu, X. (2012). The relationship of lexical richness to the quality of ESL learners’ oral narratives. The Modern Language Journal, 96(2), 190-208.
Marefat, F.  (2002). The impact of diary analysis on teaching/learning writing. RELC  Journal, 33(10), 101-21.
Meyers, L.S., Gamst, G., & Guarino, A.J. (2013). Applied multivariate research: Design and interpretation. SAGE Publications, CA: Thousand Oaks.
Olson, D. R. (2009). The history of writing. In R. Beard, D. Myhill, J. Riley, & M. Nystrand (Eds.), Sage handbook of writing development. (pp. 6-16). London, UK: Sage.
Ortega, L. (2003). Syntactic complexity measures and their relationship to L2 proficiency: A research synthesis of college-level L2 writing. Applied Linguistics, 24(4), 492-518.
Palalas, A. (2011). ESP for busy college students: Is the blend of in-class, online & mobile learning the answer? IALLT Journal of Language Learning Technologies, 41(1), 108–136.
Parvin, R. H., & Salam, S. F. (2015). The effectiveness of using technology in English language classrooms in government primary schools in Bangladesh. FIRE Forum for International Research in Education, 2(1), 47-59.
Peterson, D. (1985). Writing to learn German. In A. R. Gere (Ed.), Roots in the sawdust: Writing to learn across the disciplines (pp. 46- 59). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Puengpipattrakul, W. (2009). The use of journals to develop grammatical accuracy in writing. MANUSYA: Journal of Humanities Regular, 12(2), 90-108.
Rahmany, R., Sadeghi, B. &Faramarzi, S. (2013). The effect of blogging on vocabulary enhancementand structural accuracy in an EFL context. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 3(7), 1288-1298.
Skehan, P. (1998). A cognitive approach to language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). Needham, MA: Allyn & Bacon.      
Tuan, L. T. (2010). Enhancing EFL learners’ writing skill via journal writing. English Language Teaching, 3(3), 81-88.
VanderMolen, M. A. (2011). Does the use of dialogue journals affect the writing fluency of low-literacy adult Somali students? (Unpublished master’s thesis). Hamline University, Minnesota.
Yinger, R., & Clark, M. (1981). Reflective journal writing: theory and practice. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University. Institute for Research on Teaching.
Zhang, D. (2009). The application of blog in English writing. Journal of Cambridge Studies, 4(1). Retrieved from http://journal.acs-cam.org.uk/data/archive/2009/200901-article8.pdf.