The Role of Transcribing Group Discussion Task in Promoting Autonomy and Oral Proficiency of University EFL Learners

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Chabahar Maritime University

2 Department of English, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University

3 Department of English, Hidaj-Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hidaj, Iran



This study investigated the effect of transcribing group-discussion tasks on the development of university students' autonomy and oral proficiency. A quasi-experimental research design was followed to compare the performances of four groups: two experimental groups and two control groups (each group divided into low and high proficiency students). The study lasted for 12 weeks, and the teacher assigned a classroom oral discussion task in each session. The students were divided into discussion groups of three or four students, with low and high proficiency learners in different groups. The participants had to record their group discussion tasks. Control groups’ students had to submit their recorded conversations to their instructor, but they did not do any post-task activity. However, the experimental groups’ students had to transcribe their recorded speaking tasks, to find their own and their peers' grammatical mistakes, and to correct them. Finally, while working in groups, students discussed the texts and reformulated their mistakes. Employing ANCOVA to analyze the results, researchers found that experimental groups significantly outperformed the students of the control groups on post-tests of oral proficiency and learner autonomy. Thus, transcription followed by reflection on inaccurate production contributed to the superior performance of participants in the experimental groups.


Article Title [فارسی]

نقش پیاده سازی متون بحث های گروهی درتوسعه خودمختاری و مهارت گفتاری زبان آموزان انگلیسی در سطح دانشگاه

Authors [فارسی]

  • منصور گنجی 1
  • سکینه جعفری 2
  • مجید عسگری 3
1 گروه زبان انگلیسی، دانشکده مدیریت و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه دریانوردی و علوم دریایی
2 سکینه جعفری، گروه زبان انگلیسی، واحد زنجان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، زنجان، ایران
3 مجید عسگری، گروه زبان انگلیسی، واحد هیدج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، هیدج، ایران
Abstract [فارسی]

این پژوهش به بررسی تاثیر پیاده سازی متون بحث های گروهی برتوسعه خودمختاری و مهارت گفتاری دانشجویان می پردازد. با استفاده از روش تحقیق شبه آزمایشی، عملکرد دو گروه شاهد و دو گروه کنترل که هر کدام شامل دانشجویانی با سطح مهارت پایین و بالای زبانی بودند، مورد بررسی و مقایسه قرار گرفت. مدت زمان اجرای آموزش در هر دو گروه دوازده هفته بود و دانشجویان در هر جلسه یک تمرین بحث شفاهی گروهی اجرا کردند. هر گروه شامل سه یا چهار دانشجو با سطوح مهارت پایین و بالای زبانی بود و تمامی گروهها باید بحث های گروهی هر جلسه را در کلاس ضبط میکردند. در گروه کنترل، دانشجویان فقط ملزم بودند فایل ضبط شده تمرین را به معلم خود تحویل داده و هیچ گونه تمرین تکمیلی نداشتند، ولی دانشجویان گروه شاهد علاوه بر ضبط مکالمه می بایست آنرا بصورت متن پیاده کرده، اشتباهات گرامری خود و هم گروهی هایشان را پیدا کرده و اصلاح می کردند. سپس بصورت گروهی این متون پیاده شده را بررسی کرده واشتباهات زبانی خود را به زبان بهتری ارایه می کردند.داده ها با استفاده از آزمون آنالیز کوواریانس تحلیل و بررسی شدند و نتایج تحقیق نشان داد که دانشجویان گروه شاهد در آزمون گفتاری و میزان خودمختاری بهتر از گروه کنترل عمل کردند. بنابراین، پیاده سازی متون بحث های گروهی به همراه تفکر و بازسازی اشتباهات گرامری منجر به عملکرد بهتر دانشجویان در مهارت گفتاری و میزان خودمختاری آنها در یادگیری زبان شد.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • خودمختاری زبان آموز
  • مهارت شفاهی
  • خوداصلاحی
  • هم سال اصلاحی
  • پیاده سازی متن
Abednia, A., & Izadinia, M. (2013). Critical pedagogy in ELT classroom: Exploring contributions of critical literacy to learners’ critical consciousness. Language Awareness, 22(4), 338-352.
Benson, P. (2007). Autonomy in language teaching and learning. Language Teaching, 40(1), 21-40.
Borg, S. & Alshumaimeri, Y. (2019). Language learner autonomy in a tertiary context: Teachers’ beliefs and practices. Language Teaching Research, 23(1), 9-38.
Burkert, A. (2011). Introducing aspects of learner autonomy at tertiary level. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 5(2), 141-150.
Cooke, S. D. (2013). Examining transcription, autonomy and reflective practice in language development. RELC Journal, 44(1), 75-85.
Cole, J. & Vanderplank, R. (2016). Comparing autonomous and class-based learners in Brazil: Evidence for the present-day advantages of informal, out-of-class learning. System, 61(3), 31-42.
Dam, L. & Legenhausen, L. (2011). Explicit reflection, evaluation, and assessment in the autonomy classroom, Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 5(2), 177-189.
Dang, T. T. (2012). Learner autonomy: A synthesis of theory and practice. The Internet Journal of Language, Culture and Society, 35(1), 52-67.
Dörnyei, Z. (2007). Research methods in applied linguistics. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Harley, B. & Swain, M. (1984). The interlanguage of immersion students and its implications for second language teaching. In A.P.R. Howatt (Ed.), Interlanguage (pp. 291-311). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Holliday, A. (2003). Social autonomy: Addressing the dangers of culturism in TESOL. In D. Palfreyman & R. C. Smith, (Eds.), Learner autonomy across cultures: Language education perspectives (pp.110-126). Palgrave: Macmillan.
Jafari, S., Ketabi, S., & Tavakoli, M. (2016). Autonomously Noticing Incorrect Language Use: Does it Improve EFL Learners' Grammatical Accuracy? Journal of teaching Language Skills, 35(1), 85-110.
Khabiri, M., (2003). A study on the validity of the English proficiency test of postgraduate TEFL admission examination: A proposal for an LSP testing model. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran.
Kohonen, V. (1992). Experiential language learning: Second language learning as cooperative learner education. In D. Nunan (Ed.) Collaborative language learning and teaching (pp. 14-39). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lapkin, S., Hart, D., & Swain, M. (1991). Early and middle French immersion programs: French language outcomes. Canadian Modern Language Review, 48, 11-40.
Little, D. (1991). Definitions, issues and problems. Dublin: Authentik.
Little, D. (1997). Language awareness and the autonomous language learner. Language Awareness, 6(3), 93–104.
Little, D. (1999). Learner autonomy is more than a Western cultural construct. In S. Cotterall & D. Crabbe (Eds.) Learner autonomy in language learning: Defining the field and effecting change (pp. 11-8). Frankfurt am Main: Lang.
Little, D. (2007). Language learner autonomy: Some fundamental considerations revisited.  Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 1(1), 14-29.
Littlewood, W. (1999). Defining and developing autonomy in East Asian contexts. Applied Linguistics, 20(1), 71-94.
Lo, Y. (2010). Implementing reflective portfolios for promoting autonomous learning among EFL college students in Taiwan. Language Teaching Research, 14(1), 77-95.
Lynch, T. (2001). Seeing what they meant: Transcribing as a root to learning. ELT Journal, 55(2), 124-132.
Lynch, T. (2007). Learning from the transcripts of an oral communication task. ELT Journal, 61(4), 311-320.
Mennim, P. (2003). Rehearsed oral L2 output and reactive focus on form. ELT Journal, 57(2), 130-138.
Mennim, P. (2007). Long term effects of noticing on oral output. Language Teaching Research, 11(3), 265-80.
Mennim, P. (2012). Learner negotiation of L2 form in transcription exercises. ELT Journal, 66(1), 52-61.
Nasri, N., Vahid Dastjerdy, H., Eslami Rasekh, A., & Amirian, Z. (2015). Iranian EFL teachers’ practices and learner autonomy: Do gender, educational degree, and experience matter? Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 25(2), 1-13.
Nassaji, H., & Tian, J. (2010). Collaborative and individual output tasks and their effects on learn­ing English phrasal verbs. Language Teaching Research, 14(3), 397-419.
Railton, D. & Watson, P. (2005). Teaching autonomy: 'Reading groups' and the development of autonomous learning practices. Active Learning in Higher Education, 27(6), 182-193.
Schmidt, R. (1995). Consciousness and foreign language learning: A tutorial on the role of attention and awareness in learning. In R. Schmidt (Ed.) Attention and awareness in foreign language learning (pp. 1-63). Hawaii: University of Hawaii Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Centre.
Sinclair, B. (2009). The teacher as learner: Developing autonomy in an interactive learning environment. In R. Pemberton, S. Toogood & A. Barfield (Eds.), Maintaining control: Autonomy and language learning (pp. 175-198). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
Sfard, A. (1998). On two metaphors for learning and the danger of choosing just one. Educational Researcher, 27(2), 4-13.
Stillwell, C., Curabba, B., Alexander, K., Kidd, A., Kim, E., Stone, P., & Wyle, C. (2010). Students transcribing tasks: Noticing fluency, accuracy, and complexity. ELT Journal, 64(4), 445-455.
Swain, M. (1995). Three functions of output in second language learning. In G. Cook, & B. Seidlhofer (Eds.), Principle and practice in applied linguistics: Studies in honor of H. G. Widdowson (pp. 125-144). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Swain, M. (1998). Focus on form through conscious reflection. In C. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 64-81). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tapinta, P. (2016). Thai teachers’ beliefs in developing learner autonomy: L2 education in Thai universities. In Barnard, R., Li, J. (Eds.), Language learner autonomy: Teachers’ beliefs and practices in Asian contexts (pp. 96–113). Phnom Penh: IDP Education.
Trinh, L. Q. (2005). Stimulating Learner Autonomy in English Language Education: A Curriculum Innovation Study in a Vietnamese Context. (Unpublished PhD Dissertation). University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Vickers, C. &. Ene, E. (2006). Grammatical accuracy and learner autonomy in advanced writing. ELT Journal, 60 (2), 109-115.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1986). Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Williams, M., & Burden. R.L. (1997). Psychology for language teachers: A social constructivist approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Zhang, L.X. & Li, X.X. (2004). A comparative study on learner autonomy between Chinese students and west European students. Foreign Language World, 4, 15-23.