Document Type : Research Paper


1 University of Isfahan, Iran

2 Department of English Language, Faculty of Foreign Languages, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

3 Assistant Professor of TEFL, University of Isfahan


This study sought to investigate the effects of Explicit ‎Instruction in combination with Input ‎Enhancement (EI+IE), Input Flood (IF), and Gap-fill (GF) tasks on receptive and productive ‎knowledge of English formulaic sequences (FS) ‎by Iranian intermediate EFL learners. Assigned ‎to three experimental groups‎, the 110 participants took the receptive and productive knowledge ‎pretests, posttests, and delayed posttests. Findings of within-group (repeated-‎measures ‎ANOVAs) and between-group (ANCOVAs) tests showed that while IF could not promote ‎learners' performance, both the EI+IE and the GF could ‎improve learners’ receptive and ‎productive knowledge of target ‎FSs from pretests to posttests and ‎retained the effects until the ‎delayed posttests. Additionally, both EI+IE and GF groups ‎significantly outperformed the IF ‎group at the immediate posttests. That is, the results from EI+IE did not differ significantly from ‎those of GF. Plausible accounts for the obtained results are provided and the implications are ‎discussed.‎


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