Development and Validation of Teacher Emotional Support Scale: a structural equation modeling approach

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associate Professor, Ilam university

2 MA Student, Ilam university


Reviewing the literature indicated that no validated model was found that examine the extent to which teachers support their students emotionally in EFL classrooms. Therefore the present study elaborated on this issue through developing and validating a teacher emotional support scale in an Iranian English foreign language context. Main components of the scale have been specified based on Hamre and Pianta's (2007)theoretical framework. A large number of items were created primarily based on operational definitions of each component. After reviewing the items by a group of experts, the questionnaire was piloted and tested on a sample of 324 EFL teachers. Finally, the researchers evaluated the validity of the questionnaire through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis.The results of the reliability of the questionnaire estimated through Cronbach’s alpha were 0.833. 17 items have been removed from analysis resulting in identifying 4 factors in exploratory factor analysis. The model was evaluated using AMOS 22 also indicated that the model was fit the data.the current study contributes to the field of English language education through designing and validating new instrument to assess teacher emotional support in EFL classrooms. Researchers and other practitioners who are involved in teaching English language can assess the extent to which teachers support students emotionally in similar pedagogical EFL context using this instrument. They also need to encourage teachers to improve their emotional skills by participating in teacher training courses.


Article Title [فارسی]

توسعه و اعتبارسنجی مقیاس حمایت عاطفی معلم: رویکرد مدل‌سازی معادلات ساختاری

Authors [فارسی]

  • رضا خانی 1
  • فیان قاسمی 2
1 دانشیار، دانشگاه ایلام
2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه ایلام
Abstract [فارسی]

 مطالعه پیشینه تحقیق نشان داد که هیچ مدل معتبری که تا چه اندازه معلمان دانش‌آموزان خود را از نظر عاطفی در کلاس‌های آموزش زبان انگلیسی حمایت می‌کنند بسنجد یافت نشد. بنابراین، مطالعه حاضر با هدف توسعه و اعتبارسنجی یک مقیاس حمایت عاطفی معلم در یک کلاس زبان انگلیسی در ایران، بر این موضوع استوار است. اجزای اصلی مقیاس بر اساس چارچوب نظری(Hamre & Pianta, 2007)  مشخص شده است تعداد زیادی از آیتم‌ها عمدتاً براساس تعاریف عملیاتی هر مؤلفه ساخته شده‌اند. پس از بررسی آیتم‌ها توسط گروهی از کارشناسان، پرسشنامه توسط 324 معلم زبان انگلیسی مورد آزمایش قرار گرفت. در نهایت، محققان اعتبار پرسشنامه را از طریق تجزیه و  تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی و تأییدی ارزیابی کردند. نتایج پایایی پرسشنامه با استفاده از روش آلفای کرونباخ 0.833 برآورد شد. 17 ایتم از تجزیه و تحلیل حذف شده‌اند که منجر به شناسایی 4 عامل  در تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی شد. این مدل با استفاده از AMOS 22 مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت و همچنین نشان داد که مدل متناسب با داده‌ها است. مطالعه حاضر در زمینه آموزش زبان انگلیسی از طریق طراحی و اعتبارسنجی ابزار جدید برای ارزیابی حمایت عاطفی معلمان در کلاس‌های آموزش زبان انگلیسی کمک می‌کند. محققان و سایر متخصصانی که در تدریس زبان انگلیسی مشغول به فعالیت هستند، می‌توانند میزان حمایت عاطفی معلمان از دانش‌آموزان را با استفاده از این ابزار آموزشی در زمینه آموزش زبان انگلیسی مشابه مورد سنجش قرار دهند. آنها همچنین نیاز دارند که معلمان را تشویق کنند تا مهارت‌های عاطفی خود را با شرکت در دوره‌های آموزش معلم بهبود بخشند.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • مقیاس حمایت عاطفی
  • معلمان زبان انگلیسی
  • رویکرد مدل سازی و معادلات ساختاری
  • روایی
  • پایابی
Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. 1978. Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation.Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Albrecht, T. L., & Adelman, M. B. (1987). Communicating social support. Sage Publications, Inc.
Allen, P., & Bennett, K. 2010. PASW statistics by SPSS: A practical guide, version 18.0 (1ed.). Sydney: Cengage Learning Australia Pty Limited
Allen, J., Gregory, A., Mikami, A., Lun, J., Hamre, B., & Pianta, R. 2013. Observations of effective teacher-student interactions in secondary school classrooms: Predicting student achievement with the classroom assessment scoring system-secondary. School Psychology Review42(1), 76.
Blair, C. 2002. School readiness: Integrating cognition and emotion in a neurobiological conceptualization of children’s functioning at school entry. American Psychologist, 57, 111–127.
Burleson, B. R. 1984. Comforting communication. Communication by children and adults: Social cognitive and strategic processes, 63-104.
Burleson, B. R. 2003. The experience and effects of emotional support: What the study of cultural and gender differences can tell us about close relationships, emotion, and interpersonal communication. Personal Relationships10(1), 1-23.
Clotfelter, C., Ladd, H., and Vigdor, J. 2007. Teacher credentials and student achievement in high school: A cross-subject analysis with student fixed effects (National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 13617). Available from www.Caldercenter.
Cutrona, C. E., & Russell, D. W. 1990. Type of social support and specific stress: Toward a theory of optimal matching
Downer, J. T., López, M. L., Grimm, K. J., Hamagami, A., Pianta, R. C., & Howes, C. 2012. Observations of teacher-child interactions in classrooms serving Latinos and dual language learners: Applicability of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System in diverse settings. Early Childhood Research Quarterly27(1), 21-32.
Field, A. 2013. Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics. London: Sage Publications Ltd
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. 1981. Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. JMR, Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39.
Gazelle, H. 2006. Class climate moderates peer relations and emotional adjustment in children with an early history of anxious solitude: a child _environment model. Developmental Psychology, 42, 1179e1192
Greenberg, M. T., Weissberg, R. P., O’Brien, M. U., Zins, J. E., Fredericks, L., Resnik, H., et al. 2003. Enhancing school-based prevention and youth development through coordinated social, emotional, and academic learning. American Psychologist, 58, 466–474
Goh, S. C., Young, D. J., & Fraser, B. J. 1995. Psychosocial climate and student outcomes in elementary mathematics classrooms: a multilevel analysis. Journal of Experimental Education, 64, 29e40.
Gottfredson, G. D., Gottfredson, D. C., & Payne, A. 2005. School climate predictors of school disorder: results from a national study of delinquency prevention in schools. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 42, 412e444
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. 2010. Multivariate data analysis (7 ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Hamre, B. K., & Pianta, R. C. 2001. Early teacher-child relationships and the trajectory of children’s school outcomes through eighth grade.Child Development, 72, 625–638.
Hamre, B. K., & Pianta, R. C. 2005. Can instructional and emotional support in the first-grade classroom make a difference for children at risk of school failure? Child Development, 76, 949–967.
Hamre, B. K., & Pianta, R. C. 2007. Learning opportunities in preschool and early elementary classrooms. In R. Pianta, M. Cox, & K. Snow (Eds.), School readiness and the transition to kindergarten in the era of accountability (pp. 49–84). Baltimore: Brookes.
Heinitz, K., Liepmann, D., & Felfe, J. 2005. Examining the factor structure of the MLQ: Recommendation for a reduced set of factors. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 21, 182–190. Doi: 10.1027=1015-5759.21.3.182
Howes, C., Burchinal, M., Pianta, R., Bryant, D., Early, D., Clifford, R., et al. 2008. Ready to learn? Children’s pre-academic achievement in pre-kindergarten programs. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 23, 27–50.
Howes, C., Hamilton, C. E., & Matheson, C. C. 1994. Children’s relationships with peers: Differential associations with aspects of the teacher-child relationship. Child Development, 65, 253–263.
 Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. 1999. Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structureanalysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1e55.
Huang, S. L. 2003. Antecedents to psychosocial environments in middle schoolclassrooms in Taiwan. Learning Environments Research, 6, 119e135.
Hughes, J. N., Cavell, T. A., & Willson, V. 2001. Further evidence for the developmental significance of teacher-student relationships: Peers’ perceptions of support and conflict in teacher-student relationships. Journal of School Psychology, 39, 289–301.
Kaiser, H. F. 1974. An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika, 39(1), 31-36. doi: 10.1007/BF02291575 Karanja, E., Zaveri, J., & Ahmed, A. (2013). How do MIS researchers handle missing data in survey-based research: A content analysis approach? International Journal of Information Management, 33(5), 734-751. doi:
Karanja, E., Zaveri, J., & Ahmed, A. 2013. How do MIS researchers handle missing data in survey-based research? A content analysis approach International Journal of Information Management, 33(5), 734-751.
Kuperminc, G. P., Leadbeater, B. J., & Blatt, S. J. 2001. School social climate and individual differences in vulnerability to psychopathology among middle school students. Journal of School Psychology, 39, 141e159.
Kounin, J.S. 1970. Discipline and group management in classrooms. New York: Holt,Rinehart, & Winston.
Ladd, H. F. 2008. Teacher effects: What do we know? Unpublished manuscript, Teacher Quality Conference, Northwestern University.
Lau, K., & Lee, J. 2008. Examining Hong Kong students’ achievement goals and their relations with students’ perceived classroom environment and strategy use. Educational Psychology, 28, 357e372.
Little, R. J. A. 1988. A test of missing completely at random for multivariate data with missing values. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 83(404), 1198-1202. doi: 10.2307/2290157
Lynch, M., & Cicchetti, D. 1992. Maltreated children’s reports of relatedness to their teachers. In R. C. Pianta (Ed.), Relationships between children and non-parental adults: New directions in child development (pp. 81–108). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Merritt, E. G., Wanless, S. B., Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., Cameron, C., & Peugh, J. L. 2012. The contribution of teachers' emotional support to children's social behaviors and self-regulatory skills in first grade. School Psychology Review41(2), 141.
Nye, B., Konstantopoulos, S., & Hedges, L. V. 2004. How large are teacher effects? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 26, 237–257.
Pianta, R. C., Belsky, J., Houts, R., Morrison, F., & the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network. (2007). Opportunities to learn in America’s elementary classrooms. Science, 315, 1795–1796.
Pianta, R. C., & Hamre, B. K. 2009. Conceptualization, measurement, and improvement of classroom processes: Standardized observation can leverage capacity. Educational Researcher38(2), 109-119.
Pianta, R. C., Howes, C., Burchinal, M., Bryant, D., Clifford, R., Early, D., et al. 2005. Features of pre-kindergarten programs, classrooms, and teachers: Do they predict observed classroom quality and child-teacher interactions? Applied Developmental Science, 9, 144–159.
Pianta, R. C., Steinberg, M. S., & Rollins, K. B. 1995. The first two years of school: Teacher-child relationships and deflections in children’s classroom adjustment. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 295–312.
Pallant, J. (2010). SPSS Survival Manual (5 ed.): Open University Press.
Patrick, H., Anderman, L. H., & Ryan, A. M. 2002. Social motivation and the classroom social environment. Goals, goal structures, and patterns of adaptive learning, 85-108.
Patrick, H., Ryan, A. M., & Kaplan, A. 2007. Early adolescents’ perceptions of the classroom social environment, motivational beliefs, and engagement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 83e98.
Raver, C. C. 2004. Placing emotional self-regulation in sociocultural and socioeconomic contexts. Child Development, 75, 346–353.
Rigdon, E. E. 1998. Structural equation modeling. In G. A. Marcoulides (Ed.), Modern methods for business research (pp. 251-294). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.    
Rizzuto, T. E., Schwarz, A., & Schwarz, C. 2014. Toward a deeper understanding of, information technology (it) adoption: a multilevel analysis. Information & Management, 51(4), 479-487. doi: Robey, D., & Azevedo, A. (1994). Cultural analysis
 Roeser, R. W., Eccles, J. S., & Sameroff, A. J. 2000. School as a context of early adolescents’ academic and social-emotional development: A summary of research findings. Elementary School Journal, 100, 443–471.
Roeser, R. W., Eccles, J. S., & Sameroff, A. J. 1998. Academic and emotional functioning in early adolescence: Longitudinal relations, patterns, and prediction by experience in middle school. Development and Psychopathology, 10, 321–352.
Ruzek, E. A., Hafen, C. A., Allen, J. P., Gregory, A., Mikami, A. Y., & Pianta, R. C. (2016). How teacher emotional support motivates students: The mediating roles of perceived peer relatedness, autonomy support, and competence. Learning and Instruction42, 95-103.
Ryan, R., & Deci, E. L. 2000. Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68–78.
Ryan, R., Stiller, J. D., & Lynch, J. H. 1994. Representations of relationship to teachers, parents, and friends as predictors of academic motivation and self-esteem. Journal of Early Adolescence, 14, 226–249.
Silver, R. B., Measelle, J., Essex, M., & Armstrong, J. M. 2005.Trajectories of externalizing behavior problems in the classroom: Contributions of child characteristics, family characteristics, and the teacher-child relationship during the school transition. Journal of School Psychology, 43, 39–60.
Skinner, E. A., & Belmont, M. J. 1993. Motivation in the classroom: Reciprocal effects of teacher behavior and student engagement across the school year. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 571–581.
Somersalo, H., Solantaus, T., & Almqvist, F. 2002. Classroom climate and the mental health of primary school children. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 56, 285e290.
Tapola, A., & Niemivirta, M. 2008. The role of achievement goal orientations in students’ perceptions of and preferences for the classroom environment. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 78, 291e312.
Tavakol, M., & Dennick, R. 2011. Making sense of Cronbach‘s alpha. International Journal of Medical Education, 2, 53-55. doi: 10.5116/ijme.4dfb.8dfd.
Weissberg, R. P., & Greenberg, M. T. (1998). School and community competence-enhancement and prevention programs.
Wentzel, K. R. (1998). Social relationships and motivation in middle school: The role of parents, teachers, and peers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 202–209.
Wentzel, K. R. (1999). Social-motivational processes and interpersonal relationships: Implications for understanding motivation at school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 76–97.
Zins, J. E., Bloodworth, M. R., Weissberg, R. P., & Walberg, H. J. 2007. The scientific base linking social and emotional learning to school success. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation17(2-3), 191-210.
Zins, J. E., & Elias, M. J. 2007. Social and emotional learning: Promoting the development of all students. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation17(2-3), 233-255.