Teachers’ Limited Wait-Time Practice and Learners’ Participation opportunities in EFL Classroom Interaction

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Assistant professor , university of Mazandaran

2 M.A in English , university of Mazandaran

Abstract

Pairing theory with methodology, this study demonstrates how EFL teachers’ limited wait-time practice structures in and affects the structuring of the unfolding classroom discourse with reference to learners’ participation opportunities. Informed by the tenets of conversation analysis, we have observed, videotaped, and transcribed line-by-line 10 EFL teachers’ naturally-occurring classroom interaction. Analyses of six episodes from the data suggest that teachers’ seemingly inadvertent implementation of limited wait-time tends to reduce learners’ interactional space. Moreover, it serves the (dys)function of triggering those interactive practices whose structuring diverts teacher talk from the major pedagogic goal, i.e. increasing leaner participation. The findings of this study can be analytically generalized to the theoretical model of communicative competence. They can also help teachers on their way towards developing their classroom interactional competence. 
 

Article Title [Persian]

بکارگیری زمان انتظار محدود توسط معلمین و فرصت مشارکت زبان آموزان در تعاملات کلاسی

Authors [Persian]

  • باقر یعقوبی 1
  • مصطفی پورحاجی رکنی 2
Ahmed, M.K. (1994). Speaking as cognitive regulation: a Vygotskyan perspective on dialogic communication, in J.P. Lantolf (ed.) Vygotskyan Approaches to Second Language Research, Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Alcón Soler, E., & Safont Jordà, M. P. (2007). Intercultural Language Use and Language. Learning. Springer.
Allwright, R.L. (1984). The importance of interaction in classroom language learning, Applied Linguistics, 5: 156–71.
Allwright, D., & Bailey, K.M. (1991). Focus on the language classroom. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Anshutz, R. J. (1975). An investigation of wait time and questioning techniques as an instructional variable for science methods students microteaching elementary school children. Dissertation Abstracts International, 35, 5978A. (University Microfilms No.75-06, 131).
Beach, W. A. (1993). Transitional regularities for ‘casual’ “Okay” usages. Journal of Pragmatics, 19, 325-352.
Belhiah, H. (2012). You know Arnold Schwarzenegger? On doing questioning in second language dyadic tutorials. Applied Linguistics, 2010: 33/1: 21-41. doi: 10.1093/applin/amr030.
Breen, M.P. (1998). Navigating the discourse: on what is learned in the language classroom, in W.A. Renandya and G.M. Jacobs (eds) Learners and Language Learning. Anthology Series 39, Singapore: SEAMO Regional Language Centre.
Canale, M. (l983). From communicative competence to communicative language pedagogy. In: Richards J, Schmidt R (eds) Language and Communication. Longman, London, pp 2–27
Canale, M., & Swain, M. (l980). Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to Second language teaching and testing. Applied Linguistics 1(1): 1–48
Cazden, C. B. (1988). Classroom discourse. Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann.
Celce-Murcia, M. (l995). The elaboration of sociolinguistic competence: Implications for teacher education. In: Alatis JE, Straehle CA, Ronkin M (eds) Linguistics and the Education of Language Teachers: Ethnolinguistic, Psycholinguistic, and
154 Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning.No,10 /Antumn&Winter 2012
Sociolinguistic Aspects. Proceedings of the Georgetown University, Round Table on Languages and Linguistics, 2005. Georgetown University Press, Washington DC, pp 699–710
Celce-Murcia, M., Dörnyei Z., & Thurrell, S. (1995). A pedagogical framework for communicative competence: A Pedagogically motivated model with content specifications. Issues in Applied Linguistics 6(2): 5–35
Chomsky, N. (l957). Syntactic Structures. Mouton, The Hague
Chomsky, N. (l965). Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
DeTure, L. R., & Miller, A. P. (1985). The effects of a written protocol model on teacher acquisition of extended wait-time. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Science Teachers Association, Cincinnati, OH.
Donato, R. (2000). Sociocultural contributions to understanding the foreign and second language classroom. In J. P. Lantolf (Ed.), Sociocultural theory and second language learning (pp. 27-50). New York: Oxford University Press.
Drew, P. & Heritage, J. (1992). Analyzing talk at work: An introduction. In P. Drew & J. Heritage (Eds.), Talk at work: Interaction in institutional settings (pp. 3-65).Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Edwards, A. and Westgate, D. (1994). Investigating Classroom Talk, London: Falmer.
Ellis, R. (1998) ‘Discourse control and the acquisition- rich classroom’, in W.A. Renandya and G.M. Jacobs (eds) Learners and Language Learning. Anthology Series 39, Singapore: SEAMO Regional Language Centre.
Ellis, R. (2008). The Studying of Second Language Acquisition (2nd ed.), New York: Oxford University Press.
Fagan, E. R., Hassler, D. M., & Szabo, M. (1981). Evaluation of questioning strategies in language arts instruction. Research in the Teaching of English, 15, 267-273.
Gambrell, L. B. (1983). The occurrence of think-time during reading comprehension instruction. Journal of Educational Research, 77(2), 77-80.
Teachers Limited Wait – Time Practice and Learners’Participation… 155
Granato, J. M. (1983). The effects of wait time on the verbal behavior of kindergarten children. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the New England Educational Research Organization, Rockport, ME.
Hall, J.K. (1998). Differential teacher attention to student utterances: the construction of different opportunities for learning in the IRF, Linguistics and Education, 9: 287–311.
Heritage, J. (1997). Conversational analysis and institutional talk: analyzing data, in D. Silverman (ed.) Qualitative Research: Theory, Method and Practice, London: Sage Publications.
Honea, M. J. (1982). Wait time as an instructional variable: An influence on teacher and student. Clearinghouse, 56(4), 167-170.
Hu, Q. Q. (2004). A survey on the questioning pattern of college English teachers. Foreign Language World, 6, 22-27.
Hutchby, I., & Wooffitt, R. (1998). Conversation analysis: principles, practices and Applications. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Hymes, D. (l967). Models of the interaction of language and social setting. Journal of Social Issues 23(2): 8–38.
Hymes. D. (l972). On communicative competence. In: Pride JB, Holmes J (eds) Sociolinguistics: Selected Readings. Penguin, Harmondsworth, pp 269–293
Jacknick, C. M. (2011). But this is writing: post-expansion in student-initiated sequences. Novitas-Royal (Research on Youth and Language), 5 (1), 39-54.
Jefferson, G. (1983). Notes on some orderliness of overlap onset. Tilburg, Netherlands: Tilburg Papers in Language and Literature No. 28.
Johnson, K.E. (1995). Understanding Communication in Second Language Classrooms, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jones, N. A. (1980). The effect of type and complexity of teacher questions on student response wait time. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh). Dissertation Abstracts International, 41(2), 529-A.
Kasper, G. (2006). Beyond repair: Conversation analysis as an approach to SLA. AILA Review, 19, 83-99.
156 Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning.No,10 /Antumn&Winter 2012
Kumaravadivelu, B. (1999). Critical classroom discourse analysis, TESOL Quarterly, 33: 453–84.
Lantolf, J. P. (2000). Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Levinson, S. C. (1983). Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mackey, A. (2006). Feedback, noticing, and instructed second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 27, 405-430.
Markee, N., and Kasper, G. (2004). Classroom talks: An introduction. Modern Language Journal 88: 491-500.
Mehan, H. (1979). Learning lessons: Social organization in the classroom. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Mondada, L. and Pekarek Doehler, S. (2004). Second language acquisition as situated practice: Task accomplishment in the French second language classroom. The Modern Language Journal. 88(4), 501-518.
Mori, J., and Zuengler, J. (2008). Conversation analysis and talk-in interaction in the classroom. In M. Martin-Jones, A. M. de Mejia, and N. H. Hornberger (Eds.), Encyclopedia of language and education: Vol. 3. Discourse and education (pp. 15-26). New York: Springer
Musumeci, D. (1996). Teacher–learner negotiation in content- based instruction: communication at cross- purposes?, Applied Linguistics 17: 286–325.
Nystrand, M. (1997). Dialogic instruction: when recitation become conversation, in M. Nystrand, A. Gamoran, R. Kachur and C. Prendergast (eds) Opening Dialogue: Understanding the Dynamics of Language Learning and Teaching in the English Classroom, New York: Teachers College Press.
Psathas, G. (1995). Conversation analysis: The study of talk-in-interaction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Rice, D. R. (1977). The effect of question-asking instruction on pre-service elementary science teachers. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 14(4), 353-359.
Rowe, M.B. (1974a). Wait time and rewards as instructional variables, their influence in language, logic, and fate control: Part 1. Wait time. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 11(2), 81-94.
Teachers Limited Wait – Time Practice and Learners’Participation… 157
Rowe, M. B. (1974b). Wait time and rewards as instructional variables, their influence in language, logic, and fate control: Part 2. Rewards. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 11(4), 291-308.
Rowe, M. B. (1978). Teaching science as continuous inquiry: A basic, (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Rowe, M. B. (1986). Wait time: Slowing down may be a way of speeding up. Journal of Teacher Education, 37(1), 43-50.
Sacks, H., E. Schegloff, & G. Jefferson. (1974). A simplest systematic for the organization of turn-taking for conversation. Language 50: 696-735.
Schegloff, E. A. (2007). Sequence organization in interaction: A primer in conversation analysis. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Seedhouse, P. (1996). Learning talk: a study of the interactional organization of the L2 York.
Seedhouse, P. (2004). The interactional architecture of the language classroom: A classroom from a CA institutional discourse perspective. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of conversation analysis perspective. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Seedhouse, P. (2005). Conversation analysis and language learning. Language Teaching, 38, 165–187.
Sfard, A. (1998). On two metaphors for learning and the dangers of choosing just one. Educational Researcher, 27, 4-13.
Shrum, J. L. (1985a). Wait-time and the use of target or native languages. Foreign Language Annals, 18(4), 305-313.
Shrum, J. L. (1985b). Wait time and student performance level in second language classrooms. Journal of Classroom Interaction, 20(1), 29-35.
Stahl, R. J. (1982). How humans process information: A way of viewing how individuals think and learn. Tempe: Arizona State University.
Swift, J. N., & Gooding, C. T. (1983). Interaction of wait time feedback and questioning instruction on middle school science teaching. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 20(8), 721-730.
158 Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning.No,10 /Antumn&Winter 2012
Ten Have, P. (1999). Doing conversation analysis: A practical guide. London: Sage.
Tobin, K. G. (1986). Effects of teacher wait time on discourse characteristics in mathematics and language arts classes. American Educational Research Journal, 23(2), 191-200.
van Lier, L. (1988). The classroom and the language learner. London: Longman.
van Lier, L. (1991). Inside the classroom: learning processes and teaching procedures, Applied Language Learning, 2: 48–64.
van Lier, L. (2000a). The ecology of the language classroom: towards a new unity of theory, research and practice, IATEFL Teachers Develop Teachers Research 4, Conference Proceedings, Whitstable: IATEFL.
van Lier, L. (2000b). From input to affordance: social- interactive learning from an ecological perspective, in J.P. Lantolf (ed.) Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Van Lier, L., & Matsuo, N. (2000). Variety of conversational experience: looking for learning opportunities. Applied language learning, 11, 265-287.
Vine, E. W. (2008). CA and SCT: Strange bedfellows or useful partners for understanding classroom interactions? Discourse Studies, 10, 673-693.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Walsh, S. (2002). Construction or obstruction: Teacher talk and learner involvement in the EFL classroom. Language Teaching Research, 6, 3-23.
Walsh, S. (2006). Investigating classroom discourse. New York: Routledge.
Walsh, S. (2011). Exploring Classroom Discourse: Language in action. Oxon: Routledge.
Waring, H. Z. (2009). Moving out of IRF (Initiation-Response-Feedback): A single case analysis. Language Learning, 5 (4), 796-824.
Teachers Limited Wait – Time Practice and Learners’Participation… 159
Waring, H. Z. (2008). Using explicit positive assessment in the language classroom: IRF, feedback, and learning opportunities. Modern Language Journal, 92(4), 577–594.
Wells, G. (1999). Dialogic Inquiry: Towards a Sociocultural Practice and Theory of Education, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Winne, P. H., & Marx, R. W. (1983). Students cognitive processes while learning from teaching: Summary of findings. (Occasional paper). Burnaby, Canada: Simon Fraser University, Instructional Psychology Research Group.
Wong, J., & Waring, H. Z. ( 2009). ‘very good’ as a teacher response. ELT Journal, 63(3), 195- 203. doi: 10.1093/elt/ccno42.
Xie, X. (2008). Interaction during teacher-fronted class time of English classes in a Chinese university. Unpublished PhD thesis, Victoria University of Wellington.
Xie, X. (2011). Turn allocation patterns and learning opportunities ELT J (2011) 65(3): 240-250. doi:10.1093/elt/ccq064
Young, R. F., & Miller, E. R. (2004). Learning as changing participation: Discourse roles in ESL writing conferences. Modern Language Journal, 88(4), 519–535.
Zhao, X. H. (1998). Study of teacher talk in the intensive reading course at a university level. Foreign Language World, 2:17-22