Investigating the Manifestation of Teaching Expertise Feature among Novice and Experienced EFL Teachers

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 دانشیار دانشگاه شیرلز

2 دانشجوی دکتری آموزش زبان انگلیسی، دانشگاه شیراز

Abstract

The present study was an attempt to investigate the manifestation of teaching expertise of EFL teachers in Iranian formal educational context. More specifically, it was intended to study how teachers of English in Iranian high schools and General English instructors in a state university manifest features of teaching expertise. The study also compared the expertise features of novice teachers with those of experienced ones in both high schools and university. To achieve these goals, through a qualitative research, 10 high school teachers and 10 university instructors were purposively selected to be observed and interviewed. Each group consisted of 5 novice and 5 experienced teachers. After 2-3 sessions of observation (which functioned as the main source of data) and one session of interview with all participants, an attempt was made to extract cases or instances of expertise in their teaching practice. These instances were later categorized into 6 types of expertise: expertise in management, motivational expertise and providing guidance and feedback, instructional expertise, content knowledge expertise, expertise in making connections between subjects of study, and expertise in dealing with challenges. A table consisting of these expertise types and all those instances or cases of expertise (extracted from the observation reports and also the literature) was designed. The data for each teacher was analyzed closely again and those cases which were present in their teaching practice were checked in the table. The next step was to look carefully at the patterns of expertise in each group of teachers. The analysis of the collected data revealed that teaching expertise was manifested almost similarly in the teaching practice of the four groups of teachers. Three groups i.e. experienced high school teachers, and novice and experienced university instructors exhibited 100% success in at least one type of expertise, namely making connections between subjects of the study. This aspect of expertise in novice high school teachers proved to be just 60%. Experienced university instructors formed the only group who achieved perfect performance (100%) in two types of expertise, namely, content knowledge expertise and expertise in making connections between subjects of study. And novice high school teachers formed the only group who did not achieve perfect performance in any of the teaching expertise types.

Keywords


Article Title [فارسی]

بررسی ظهور خصوصیات تخصص در تدریس در میان معلمان و اساتید تازه کار و باتجربه در دبیرستان و دانشگاه در ایران

Authors [فارسی]

  • سعید مهرپور 1
  • زهرا سادات میرسنجری 2
Abstract [فارسی]

مطالعه حاضر به بررسی نمود تخصص در تدریس معلمان انگلیسی در محیطهای رسمی آموزشی ایران پرداخته است. به طور خاص این تحقیق با این هدف شکل گرفت که نشان دهد چطور معلمان زبان انگلیسی در دبیرستانها و اساتید زبان عمومی در یک دانشگاه دولتی ایران خصوصیات تخصص در تدریس را آشکار میسازند. این تحقیق همچنین به مقایسه خصوصیات تخصص در تدریس معلمان و اساتید تازه کار و باتجربه در دبیرستان و دانشگاه پرداخته است. به این منظور طی یک تحقیق کیفی، 10 معلم دبیرستان و 10 استاد دانشگاه به صورت هدفمند برای مشاهده و مصاحبه انتخاب شدند. هر گروه شامل 5 معلم تازه کار و 5 معلم با تجربه بود. بعد از 3-2 جلسه مشاهده کلاس درس معلمان (به عنوان منبع اصلی داده­ها) و یک جلسه مصاحبه با همه شرکت کنندگان، همه موارد و نمونه­های تخصص در تدریس معلمان استخراج شد. این نمونه­ها بعدا به صورت 6 نوع تخصص در تدریس طبقه بندی شدند: تخصص در مدیریت، تخصص در ایجاد انگیزه و ارائه راهنمایی و بازخورد، تخصص آموزشی، تخصص در شناخت مفاهیم، تخصص در ایجاد ارتباط بین موضوعات مختلف درسی و تخصص در مدیریت چالش­ها. سپس جدولی طراحی شد که شامل همه انواع تخصص در تدریس و نمونه­ها و مثالهای هر کدام بود (که از گزارشات مشاهدات و هم چنین از ادبیات موضوع استخراج شده بود). داده­ها برای هر کدام از معلمان دوباره به صورت دقیق مورد بررسی قرار گرفت و مواردی که در تدریس عملی آنها وجود داشت در جدول علامت­گذاری گردید. قدم بعدی مطالعه دقیق الگوهای تخصص در تدریس برای هر گروه از معلمان بود. تحلیل داده های جمع­آوری شده نشان داد که تخصص در تدریس به صورت تقریبا مشابهی در تدریس عملی معلمان 4 گروه نمود پیدا کرده بود. سه گروه یعنی معلمان با تجربه دبیرستان و اساتید تازه کار و با تجربه دانشگاه موفقیت 100 درصدی را در حداقل یکی از انواع تخصص در تدریس نشان دادند که مربوط به ایجاد ارتباط در بین موضوعات درسی بود. این نوع تخصص تدریس برای معلمان تازه کار دبیرستان تنها 60 درصد بود. اساتید با تجربه دانشگاه تنها گروهی بودند که در دو نوع از تخصص یعنی تخصص در شناخت مفاهیم و ایجاد ارتباط بین موضوعات درسی به موفقیت کامل (100 درصدی) رسیدند. و معلمان تازه کار دبیرستان تنها گروهی بودند که در هیچ کدام از انواع تخصص در تدریس موفقیت کامل 100 درصدی را به دست نیاوردند.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • خصوصیات تخصص در تدریس
  • محیط های رسمی آموزشی ایران
  • معلمان تازه کار و با تجربه
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