The Effects of Direct Corrective Feedback and Metalinguistic Explanation on EFL Learners’ Implicit and Explicit Knowledge of English Definite and Indefinite Articles

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 PhD in Applied linguistics

2 Associate Professor

Abstract

This study investigated the effects of two types of written feedback – direct corrective feedback (DCF) and metalinguistic explanation (ME) - on Iranian EFL learners’ implicit and explicit knowledge of English definite and indefinite articles. Assigned to three groups of DCF, ME, and control groups, the participants took four tests in three testing phases: pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest. Four testing instruments measured the two knowledge types: narrative writings, speeded dictation, untimed grammaticality judgment, and error correction tests. Results indicated that both treatments were effective in the immediate posttests. However, the ME proved to have longer lasting effects than the DCF as the improvement of both knowledge types were sustained after a three week period in the ME group. According to the obtained findings, it is argued that the description of the rules and the examples given explicitly in a ME handout might be more beneficial in promoting learners’ implicit and explicit knowledge of English articles than the DCF.
 

Keywords


Akakura, M. (2011).Evaluating the effectiveness of explicit instruction on implicit and explicit L2 knowledge. Language Teaching Research, 16(1), 9-37.
Bitchener, J. (2008). Evidence in support of written corrective feedback. Journal of second language writing, 17(2), 102-118.
Bitchener, J. (2012). A reflection on ‘the language learning potential’ of written CF. Journal of Second Language Writing, 21(4), 348-363.
Bitchener, J., & Ferris, D. R. (2012).Written corrective feedback in second language acquisition and writing. New York: Routledge.
Bitchener, J., &Knoch, U. (2008).The value of written corrective feedback for migrant and international students. Language Teaching Research, 12, 409-431.
Bitchener, J., &Knoch, U. (2009).The relative effectiveness of different types of direct written corrective feedback. System, 37(2), 322-329.
Bitchener, J., &Knoch, U. (2010a). The contribution of written corrective feedback to language development: A ten month investigation. Applied Linguistics, 31, 193–214.
Bitchener, J., & Knoch, U. (2010b). Raising the linguistic accuracy level of advanced L2 writers with written corrective feedback. Journal of Second Language Writing, 19(4), 207-217. 
Bitchener, J., Young, S., & Cameron, D. (2005).The effective of different types of corrective feedback on ESL student writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 14, 191–205.
Byrne, D. (1967). Progressive Picture Compositions: Teacher's Book (Vol. 2). Longman.
Celce-Murcia, M., Larsen-Freeman, D. (1999).The Grammar Book: An ESL/EFL Teacher’s Course. Boston, MA: Heinle and Heinle.
Chandler, J. (2003). The efficacy of various kinds of error feedback for improvement in the accuracy and fluency of L2 student writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 12(3), 267–296.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. NY: Academic Press.
DeKeyser, R. M. (2003). Implicit and explicit learning.In C. J. Doughty & M. H. Long (Eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 313-348). Oxford: Blackwell.
Diab, N. M. (2015). Effectiveness of written corrective feedback: Does type of error and type of correction matter? Assessing Writing, 24, 16-34.
Ellis, N. (2005). At the interface: Dynamic interactions of explicit and implicit language knowledge. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27(2), 305-352.
Ellis, R. (1997). SLA research and language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ellis, R. (2005). Measuring implicit and explicit knowledge of a second language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27(2), 141-172.
Ellis, R. (2009). A typology of written corrective feedback types. ELT Journal, 63, 97–107.
Ellis, R. (2010). A framework for investigating oral and written corrective feedback. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 32(2), 335-349.
Ellis, R., &Barkhuizen, G. (2005). Analyzing Learner Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ellis, R., Loewen, S., &Erlam, R. (2006). Implicit and explicit corrective feedback and the acquisition of L2 grammar. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28, 339-368.
Ellis, R., Loewen, S., Elder, C., Erlam, R., Philp, J., &Reinders, H. (2009).Implicit and explicit knowledge in second language learning, testing and teaching. Bristol/Buffalo, NY/Toronto: Multilingual Matters.
Ellis, R., Sheen, Y., Murakami, M., & Takashima, H. (2008). The effects of focused and unfocused written corrective feedback in an English as a foreign language context. System, 36, 353–371.
Ferris, D. & Hedgcock, J. (2005).Teaching ESL Composition: Purpose, Process, & Practice, 2nd Edition. Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ.
Ferris, D. R. (2003).Response to student writing: Implications for second language students. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 
Ferris, D. R. (2006). Does error feedback help student writers? New evidence on the short-and long-term effects of written error correction. In K. Hyland & F. Hyland (Eds.), Feedback in second language writing: Contexts and issues (pp. 81-104). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ferris, D. R. (2010).Second language writing research and written corrective feedback in SLA. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 32(2), 181-201.
Ferris, D. R., & Roberts, B. (2001). Error feedback in L2 writing classes: How explicit does it need to be? Journal of Second Language Writing, 10, 161–184.
Ferris, D. R., Liu, H., Sinha, A., & Senna, M. (2013).Written corrective feedback for individual L2 writers. Journal of Second Language Writing, 22(3), 307-329.
Ferris, D.R., &Helt, M. (2000).Was Truscott right?New evidence on the effects of error correction in L2 writing classes. Paper presented at Proceedings of the American Association of Applied Linguistics Conference, Vancouver, B.C., March 11–14, 2000 
Frear, D. (2012). The effect of written corrective feedback and revision on intermediate Chinese learners’ acquisition of English.Unpublished doctoral dissertation. The University of Auckland, New Zealand.
Grey, S., Williams, J. N., &Rebuschat, P. (2015). Individual differences in incidental language learning: Phonological working memory, learning styles, and personality. Learning and Individual Differences, 38, 44-53.
Guenette, D. (2007). Is feedback pedagogically correct? Research design issues in studies of feedback in writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 16(1), 40–53.
Hedge, T. (2000). Teaching and learning in the language classroom. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Junqueira, L., &Payant, C. (2015). “I just want to do it right, but it's so hard”: A novice teacher's written feedback beliefs and practices. Journal of Second Language Writing, 27, 19-36.
Kamiya, N. (2015). The effectiveness of intensive and extensive recasts on L2 acquisition for implicit and explicit knowledge. Linguistics and Education, 29, 59-72.
Kang, E., & Han, Z. (2015). The Efficacy of Written Corrective Feedback in Improving L2 Written Accuracy: A MetaAnalysis. The Modern Language Journal, 99(1), 1-18.
Krashen, S. D. (1985). The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. London: Longman.
Mackey, A. (1999). Input, interaction, and second language development. Studies in second language acquisition, 21(04), 557-587.
Manchon, R. (Ed.). (2011). Learning-to-write and writing-to-learn in an additional language. John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Polio, C. (2012).The relevance of second language acquisition theory to the written error correction debate. Journal of Second Language Writing, 21(4), 375-389.
Reichelt, M. (2001).A critical review of foreign language writing research on pedagogical approaches. Modern Language Journal, 85, 578–598.
Ruegg, R. (2015). The relative effects of peer and teacher feedback on improvement in EFL students’ writing ability. Linguistics and Education, 29, 73-82.
Schmidt, R. (2001). Attention. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp. 3-32). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sheen, Y. (2007). The effect of focused written corrective feedback and language aptitude on ESL learners’ acquisition of articles. TESOL Quarterly, 41, 255–283.
Sheen, Y. (2010). Differential effects of oral and written corrective feedback in the ESL classroom. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 32(2), 201-234.
Sheen, Y., Wright, D., &Moldawa, A. (2009).Differential effects of focused and unfocused written correction on the accurate use of grammatical forms by adult ESL learners. System, 37(4), 556–569.
Shintani, N. (2015). The effects of computer-mediated synchronous and asynchronous direct corrective feedback on writing: a case study. Computer Assisted Language Learning, (ahead-of-print), 1-22.
Shintani, N., & Ellis, R. (2013).The comparative effect of direct written corrective feedback and metalinguistic explanation on learners’ explicit and implicit knowledge of the English indefinite article. Journal of Second Language Writing, 22(3), 286-306.
Shintani, N., & Ellis, R. (2015). Does language analytical ability mediate the effect of written feedback on grammatical accuracy in second language writing? System, 49, 110-119.
Shintani, N., Ellis, R., & Suzuki, W. (2014).Effects of written feedback and revision on learners’ accuracy in using two English grammatical structures. Language Learning, 64(1), 103-131.
Truscott, J. (1996). The case against grammar correction in L2 writing classes. Language Learning, 46, 327–369.
Truscott, J. (1998). Noticing in second language acquisition: A critical review. Second Language Research, 14, 103–135.
Van Beuningen, C. G., De Jong, N., & Kuiken, F. (2012). Evidence on the effectiveness of comprehensive error correction in second language writing. Language Lear