Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of English Language & Literature, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Foreign Languages, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


This study aims to investigate the effect of implementing self-reflection training on Iranian in-service EFL teachers’ beliefs and performance development. From all available participants teaching at the International College of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, 20 in-service EFL teachers were involved in this study. The teacher’s belief questionnaire, observation checklist, and Skype app were used as the instruments to collect data. Before the training phase, the pre-tests, i.e., observation checklist and teacher’s belief questionnaire, were used for all the participants. The researchers utilized Skype App to instruct the participants in an online setting. During the training phase, participants were exposed to self-reflection practice. The instruction was done in 16 sessions twice a week for two months. After the training phase, the post-tests were run, i.e., the observation checklist and teachers’ belief questionnaire. The data analysis revealed that implementing the principles of self-reflective instruction had a statistically significant effect on Iranian in-service EFL teachers’ beliefs about their teaching practice efficacy and teaching performance development. This study has some implications that may help language teacher educators, English instructors, EFL/ESL learners, students, language curriculum program policymakers, and educational syllabus designers.


Main Subjects

Abednia, A. (2012). Teachers’ professional identity: Contributions of a critical EFL teacher education course in Iran. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(5), 706-717.
Abednia, A., Hovassapian, A., Teimournezhad, S., & Ghanbari, N. (2013). Reflective journal writing: Exploring in-service EFL teachers’ perceptions. System, 41, 503-514.
Aguinis, H. (2009). An expanded view of performance management. In J. W. Smither & M. London (Eds.), Performance management: Putting research into action (pp. 41-44). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Akbari, R. (2007). Reflection on reflection: A critical appraisal of reflective practice in l2 teacher education. System, 35(2), 192-207.
Akbari, R. (2008). Postmethod discourse and practice. Tesol Quarterly, 42(4), 641-652.
Akbari, R., Bhezadpoor, F., & Dadvand, B. (2010). Development of English language teaching reflection inventory. System, 38, 211-227.
Ansarin, A. A., Farrokhi, F., & Rahmani, M. (2015). Iranian EFL teachers’ reflection levels: The role of gender, experience, and qualifications. The Asian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 2(2), 140-155.
Barcelos, A. M. F., & Kalaja, P. (2011). Introduction to beliefs about SLA revisited. System, 39(3), 281-289.
Barcelos, A. M. F., & Kalaja, P. (2013). Beliefs in SLA: Teacher. In C. A. Chapelle (Ed.), Encyclopedia of applied linguistics (pp. 1-6). Malden, MA: Wiley Blackwell.
Basturkmen, H. (2012). Review of research into the correspondence between language teachers’ stated beliefs and practices. System, 40(2), 282-295.
Beauchamp, C. (2014). Reflection in teacher education: Issues emerging from a review of current literature. Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 16(1), 123-141.
Behzadpoor, F., Ghafar Samar, R., Akbari, & R., Kiany, G. (2019). The development of reflective practice among novice English language teachers: The role of reflective journals. Foreign Language Research Journal, 9(2), 365-398.
Borg, S. (2003). Teacher cognition in language teaching: A review of research on what language teachers think, know, believe, and do. Language Teaching, 36, 81-109.
Borg, S. (2010). Contemporary themes in language teacher education. FLC, 7(4), 84-89.
Brookfield, S. D. (2017). Critical reflective teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Crookes, G. (2009). Radical language teaching. In M. H. Long, & C. J. Doughty (Eds.), The handbook of language teaching (pp. 595-609). Hong Kong: Blackwell Publishing.
Crookes, G. V. (2013). Critical ELT in action: Foundations, promises, praxis. New York: Routledge.
Dewey, J. (1933). How we think: A restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the educative process. Boston: Heath.
Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education. New York: Macmillan.
Farrell, T. S. C (2004). Reflective practice in action: 80 reflection breaks for busy teachers. California: Corwin Press.
Farrell, T. S. C. (2007). Reflective language teaching: From research to practice. London: Continuum.
Farrell, T. S. C. (2016). The practices of encouraging TESOL teachers to engage in reflective practice: An appraisal of recent research contributions. Language Teaching Research, 20(2), 232-247.
Farrell, T. S. C., & Bennis, K. (2013). Reflecting on ESL teacher beliefs and classroom practices: A case study. RELC Journal, 44, 163-176.
Farrell, T. S. C., & Ives, J. (2015). Exploring teacher beliefs and classroom practices through reflective practice. Language Teaching Research, 19(5), 594-610.
Fendler, L (2003). Teacher reflection in a hall of mirrors: Historical influences and political reverberations. Educational Researcher, 32(3), 16-25.
Feryok, A. (2010). Language teacher cognitions: Complex dynamic systems? System, 38, 272-279.
Golombek, P., & Doran, M. (2014). Unifying cognition, emotion, and activity in language teacher professional development. Teaching and Teacher Education, 39, 102-111.
Goodley, C. (2018). Reflecting on being an effective teacher in an age of measurement. Reflective Practices, 19, 167-178.
Graham A., & Phelps, R. (2003). Being a teacher: Developing teacher identity and enhancing practice through metacognitive and reflective learning processes. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 27(2), 11-24.
Hawkins, M., & Norton, B. (2009). Critical language teacher education. In A. Burns & J. Richards (Eds.), Cambridge guide to second language teacher education (pp. 30-39). Cambridge University Press.
Hoffman-Kipp, P., Artiles, A., & Lopez-Torres, L. (2003). Beyond Reflection: Teacher learning as praxis. Theory into Practice, 42(3), 248-254.
Jarvis, P., Holford, J., & Griffin, C. (2003). The theory of practice and learning. Kogan Page Limited.
Johnson, K. E. (1999). Understanding language teaching: Reasoning in action. MA: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.
Kalaja, P., Barcelos, A. M. F., Aro, M., & Ruohotie-Lyhty, M. (2016). Beliefs, agency and identity in foreign language learning and teaching. Palgrave Macmillan.
Kayapinar, U. (2013). Discovering expatriate reflective practitioners. Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 14(4), 435-451.
Khader, F. R. (2012). Teachers’ pedagogical beliefs and actual classroom practices in social studies instruction. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 2(1), 73-92.
Khanam, A. (2015). A practicum solution through reflection: An iterative approach. Reflective Practice, International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 16(5), 677-687.
Kubanyiova, M., & Feryok, A. (2015). Language teacher cognition in applied linguistics research: Revisiting the territory, redrawing the boundaries, reclaiming the relevance. Modern Language Journal, 99, 435-449.
Kumaravadivelu, B. (2001). Toward a postmethod pedagogy. TESOL Quarterly, 35, 537-560.
Lake, R. L. (2016). Radical love in teacher education praxis: Imagining the real through listening to diverse student voices. The International Journal of Critical Pedagogy, 7(3). 79-98.
Lew, M., & Schmidt, H. (2011). Self-reflection and academic performance: are there a relationship? Advances in Health Sciences Education, 16(4), 529-545.
Loughran, J. J. (2002). Effective reflective practice: In search of meaning in learning about teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 53(1), 33-43.
Malmberg, L.-E., Hagger, H., Burn, K., Mutton, T., & Colls, H. (2010). Observed classroom quality during teacher education and two years of professional practice. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(4), 916-932.
Mansour, N. (2009). Science teachers’ beliefs and practices: Issues, implications and research agenda. Environmental & Science Education, 4(1), 25-48.
Marshall, T. (2019). The concept of reflection: A systematic review and thematic synthesis across professional contexts. Reflective Practice, 20(3), 396-415.
Mercer, S. (2011). Towards an understanding of language learner self-concept. Dordrecht: Springer.
Moradkhani, S., & Shirazizadeh, M. (2017). Context-based variations in EFL teachers’ reflection: The case of public schools versus private institutes in Iran. Reflective Practice, 18(2), 206- 218.
Nuske, K. (2015). Transformation and stasis: Two case studies of critical teacher education in TESOL. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, 12(4), 283-312.
Poulou, M. S., Reddy, L. A., & Dudek, C. M. (2019). Relation of teacher self-efficacy and classroom practices: A preliminary investigation. School Psychology International, 40(1), 25-48.
Randi, J. (2004). Teachers as self-regulated learners. Teachers’ College Record, 106, 1825-1853.
Richards, J. C. (1998). Beyond training. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ruohotie-Lyhty, M., Korppi, A., Moate, J., & Nyman, T. (2017). Seeking understanding of foreign language teachers’ shifting emotions in relation to pupils. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 1, 1-15.
Russell, T. (2006). Can reflective practice be taught? International and Multidisciplinary Perspective, 6(2), 199-204.
Schon, D. A. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner: Toward a new design for teaching and learning in the professions. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Soodmand Afshar, H., & Farahani, M. (2018). Inhibitors to EFL teachers’ reflective teaching and EFL learners’ reflective thinking and the role of teaching experience and academic degree in reflection perception. Reflective Practice, 19(1), 46-67.
Thorpe, K. (2004). Reflective learning journals: From concept to practice. Reflective Practice, 5(3), 327-343.
Wallace, M. J. (1998). Action research for language teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ward, J. R., & McCotter, S. S. (2004). Reflection as a visible outcome for preservice teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 20, 243-257.
Watanabe, A. (2016). Reflective practice as professional development: Experiences of teachers of English in Japan. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Wideen, M., Mayer-Smith, J., & Moon, B. (1998). A critical analysis of the research on learning to teach: Making the case for an ecological perspective on inquiry. Review of Educational Research, 68(2), 130-178.
Yang, S. H. (2009). Using blogs to enhance critical reflection and community of practice. Educational Technology and Society, 12(2), 11-21.
Zeicher, K. M., & Liston, D. P. (2014). Reflective teaching: An introduction. Routledge.
Zhu, X. (2011). Student teachers’ reflection during practicum, plenty of action, few in action. International and Multidisciplinary Perspective, 12(6), 763-775.