Document Type : Research Paper


English Language & Literature Department, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran


The current study attempted to investigate and compare the perceptions of Iranian in-service hard disciplines, soft disciplines, and English teachers of their prognostic, formative, and summative assessment literacy. To this end, a total number of 282 high school teachers (94 teachers from each disciplinary groups) were asked to complete the modified and validated version of Rahimi and Rastgoo’s (2017) questionnaire. To enrich the quantitative phase, 90 teachers (30 ones in each group of disciplines) were also interviewed. The results of one-way ANOVA and multiple comparisons revealed a significant difference between hard disciplines and English teachers in terms of their prognostic and summative assessment literacy. However, no significant difference was found among the three groups in terms of their formative assessment literacy. The content analysis of the interviews cast light on the commonalities and discrepancies of assessment perceptions and practices depending on the teachers’ disciplines. The findings can be transferred to teacher education programs to enhance the teachers’ subject-specific assessment competencies. 


Main Subjects

Abbasian, Gh. R., & Koosha, M. (2017). An investigation of Iranian university teachers’ assessment literacy: EFL teachers vs. field specialist ESP teachers. Foreign Language Research Journal, 7(1), 203-232. [In Persian]
Adams, E. L., & Hsu, J. Y. (1998). Classroom assessment: Teachers’ conceptions and practices in mathematics. School Science and Mathematics, 98(4), 174-180.
Airsian, P. W. (1994). Classroom assessment. New York: Mcgraw-Hill.
Alsarimi, A. M. (2000). Classroom assessment and grading practices in the Sultanate of Oman. (Unpublished Doctoral dissertation). University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Brookhart, S. M. (1998). Teaching about grading and communicating assessment results. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council on Measurement in Education, San Diego, CA. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. 419838)
Brookhart, S. M. (1999). The art and science of classroom assessment: The missing part of pedagogy. Washington DC ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education and Office of Educational Research and Improvement.
Brookhart, S. M. (2001). The Standards and classroom assessment research. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, Dellas, TX. (ERIC Document reproduction service).
Coombe, Ch., Vafadar, H., & Mohebbi, H. (2020). Language assessment literacy: what do we need to learn, unlearn, and relearn? Language Testing in Asia, 10(3), 1-16.
DeLuca, C., & Klinger, D. A. (2010). Assessment literacy development: identifying gaps in teacher candidates’ learning. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 17, 419-438.
DeLuca, C., LaPoine-McEwan, D., & Luhanga, U. (2015). Teacher assessment literacy: a review of international standards and measures. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability28(3), 251-272
Deygers, B., & Malone, M. E. (2019). Language assessment literacy in university admission policies, or the dialogue that isn’t. Language Testing36(3), 347-368.
Fulcher, G. (2012). Assessment literacy for the language classroom. Language Assessment Quarterly, 9(2), 113-132.
Gullickson, A. R. (1984). Teacher perspectives of their instructional use of tests. The Journal of Educational Research, 77(4), 244-248.
Hailaya, W. M. (2014). Teacher assessment literacy and student outcomes in the province of Tawi-Tawi, Philippines (Doctoral dissertation). University of Adelaide, Australia.
Hatch, E. & Lazaraton, A. (1991). The research manual: Design and statistics for applied linguistics. Boston: Heinle Publication.
Inbar-Lourie, O. (2008b). Constructing a language assessment knowledge base: A focus on language assessment courses. Language Testing, 25(3), 385–402.
Kim, A. A., Chapman, M., Kondo, A., & Wilmes, C. (2020). Examining the assessment literacy required for interpreting score reports: A focus on educators of K–12 English learners. Language Testing37(1), 54-75.
King, J. D. (2010). Criterion-referenced assessment literacy of educators. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS.
Lawson, T., Çakmak, M., Gündüz, M., & Busher, H. (2015). Research on teaching practicum–a systematic review. European journal of teacher education38(3), 392-407.
MacBeath, F., & Galton, M. (2004). A life in secondary teaching: Finding time for learning. Accessed on May 2, 2016 from
Mertler, C. A. (2004). Secondary teachers’ assessment literacy: does classroom experience make a difference? American Secondary Education, 33(1), 49-64.
Messick, S. (1989). Validity. In R. L. Linn (Ed.), Educational measurement (3rd ed., pp. 13-103). New York: Macmillan.
Ng, W. S., Xie, H., & Wang, F. L. (2018, July). Enhancing teacher assessment literacy using a blended deep learning approach. In International Conference on Blended Learning (pp. 203-214). Springer, Cham.
Nikmard, F., & Zenouzagh, Z. M. (2020). Designing and validating a potential assessment inventory for assessing ELTs’ assessment literacy. Language Testing in Asia10(1), 1-19.\
Pallant, J. (2013). SPSS survival manual. (5th ed.). A step by step guide to data analysis using IBM SPSS. Maidenhead: Open University Press/McGraw-Hill.
Paterno, J. (2001). Measuring success: A glossary of assessment terms. Building cathedrals: Compassion for the 21st century. Retrieved July 24, 2003, www.angelfire.comlwa2/buildingcathedrals/measuringsuccess.html
Plake, B. S., & Impara, J. C. (1996). Teacher assessment literacy: What do teachers know about assessment?. In Handbook of classroom assessment (pp. 53-68). Academic Press.
Popham, W. J. (2013). Classroom assessment: What teachers need to know (7th ed.). Boston: Pearson.
Rahimi, Zh., & Rastgoo, A. (2017). Investigating the relationship between primary school teachers’ assessment literacy and the quality of teaching. Paper presented in Iran and World New Researches in Psychology, Educational Sciences, and Social Studies, Shiraz University, Iran. [In Persian]
Razavipour, K. (2013). Assessing assessment literacy: Insights from a high-stakes test. Journal of Research in Applied Linguistics4(1), 111-131.
Robinson, V. M. J., & Lai, M. K. (2006). Practitioner research for educators: A guide to improving classrooms and schools. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.
Salimi, E. A., & Farsi, M. (2020). Probing into EFL teachers’ assessment literacy and teaching experience: The case of native ESL and non-native EFL teachers. Journal of Language Teaching and Learning, 12(25), 269-288.
Stiggins, R. J. (1991). Relevant classroom assessment training for teachers. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practices, 10(1), 7-12.
Stiggins, R. J. (1992). High quality classroom assessment: What does it really mean? Educational Measurement: Issues and Practices, 11(2), 35-39.
Stiggins, R. J. (1995). Assessment literacy for the 21st century. Phi Delta Kappan, 238-245.
Stiggins, R. J. (1999). Are you assessment literate? The High School Journal, 6(5), 20-23.
Stiggins, R. J., & Conklin, N. F. (1992). In teachers’ hands: Investigating the practices of classroom assessment. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Willis, J., Adie, L., & Klenowski, V. (2013). Conceptualizing teachers’ assessment literacies in an era of curriculum and assessment reform. The Australian Educational Researcher, 40(2), 241-256.
Xu, Y., & Brown, G. T. (2017). University English teacher assessment literacy: A survey-test report from China. Papers in Language Testing and Assessment, 6(1), 133-158.
Zhang, Z., & Burry-stock, J. A. (2003). Classroom assessment practices and teachers’ self-perceived assessment skills. Applied Measurement in Education, 16(4), 323-342.