Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of English Language and Literature, Tehran University of Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of English Language Learning, Islamic Azad University, Abhar Branch, Abhar, Iran

3 Department of English Language Teaching, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

4 Department of English Language Teaching, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran


The effect of assessment types (self, peer, and teacher) on the EFL writing strategies development was examined in this study. Sixty upper-intermediate EFL learners at Qazvin Islamic university in four groups (one control and three experimental groups) were studied. One-way ANOVA checked homogeneity of the groups prior to the treatments and, then, the participants’ records and diaries were employed to gather data. Explanatory and descriptive analyses were implemented to analyze and classify the strategies the EFL learners picked up. This provided the type, frequency, and percentage of the strategies the participants mostly employed. The results revealed that the experimental groups, namely, self-assessment group, peer assessment group, and teacher assessment group employed more cognitive and meta-cognitive strategies than the control group. Affective strategies were more appealing to the control group. Focusing on the diction of the words, concentrating on the complex structures used by different writers, and making use of the structures the participants became interested in or found suitable were the most frequently referred to strategies. Teaching strategies the participants more picked up in this study might enhance EFL learners’ writing development at TEFL centers.


Main Subjects

Ableeva, R. (2008). The effects of dynamic assessment on L2 listening comprehension. In J. P. Lantolf & M. Poehner (Eds.), Socio-cultural theory and the teaching of second languages (pp. 57-86). London: Equinox Press.
Ableeva, R. (2010). Dynamic assessment of listening comprehension in second language learning [Ph.D Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University].
Alavi, S. M., & Taghizadeh, M. (2014). Dynamic Assessment of Writing: The Impact of Implicit/Explicit Mediations on L2 Learners' Internalization of Writing Skills and Strategies. Educational Assessment, 19(1), 1-16.
Alderson, C., & Tankó, G. (2010). Into Europe: The writing handbook. London: British Council.
Arifin, S. (2020). Investigating the L2 Writing Strategies Used by Skillful English Students. 2020, 53(1), 12.
Arndt, V. (1987). Six writers in search of texts: A protocol-based study of L1 and L2 writing. ELT Journal, 41, 257-267.
Astin, A. W. (2012). Assessment for excellence: The philosophy and practice of assessment and evaluation in higher education. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Atkinson, D. (2003). L2 writing in the post-process era: Introduction. Journal of Second Language Writing, 12, 3-15.
Bachman, L. F. (2015). Justifying the use of language assessments: Linking Test performance with consequences. JLTA Journal, 18, 3-22.
Bachman, L. F., Palmer, A. S., & Palmer, A. S. (2010). Language assessment in practice: Developing language assessments and justifying their use in the real world. Oxford University Press Oxford.
Brown, G. A., Bull, J., & Pendlebury, M. (2013). Assessing student learning in higher education. Routledge.
Carson, J. G., & Longhini, A. (2002). Focusing on learning styles and strategies: A diary study in an immersion setting. Language learning, 52(2), 401-438.
Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.
Ebadi, S., & Rahimi, M. (2019). Mediating EFL learners’ academic writing skills in online dynamic assessment using Google Docs. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 32(5-6), 527-555.
Farhady, H. (2006). Twenty-five years of living with applied linguistics: Collection of articles. Tehran, Iran: Rahnama.
Ferretti, R. P., & Graham, S. (2019). Argumentative writing: theory, assessment, and instruction. Reading and Writing, 32(6), 1345-1357.
Furnham, A., & Marks, J. (2013). Tolerance of ambiguity: A review of the recent literature. Psychology, 4(09), 717-728.
Giraldo, F. (2021). A Reflection on Initiatives for Teachers’ Professional Development Through Language Assessment Literacy. Profile: Issues in Teachers' Professional Development, 23(1), 197-213.
Gordon, A. M. (2015). Paper Based Testing vs. Mobile Device Based Testing in an EFL Environment: What’s the Difference?
Grabe, W., & Kaplan, R. B. (2014). Theory and practice of writing: An applied linguistic perspective. Routledge.
Graham, S., & Perin, D. (2007). Writing next: Effective strategies to improve writing of adolescents in middle and high schools. A report to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Alliance for Excellent Education.
Gregg, L. W., & Steinberg, E. R. (Eds.). (2016). Cognitive processes in writing. Routledge.
Guterman, E. (2002). Toward dynamic assessment of reading: Applying metacognitive awareness guidance to reading assessment tasks. Journal of Research in reading, 25(3), 283-298.
Hill, K., & Sabet, M. (2009). Dynamic speaking assessments. TESOL Quarterly, 43(3), 537-545.
Hsiao, T. Y., & Oxford, R. L. (2002). Comparing theories of language learning strategies: A confirmatory factor analysis. The modern language journal, 86(3), 368-383.
Kovacic, A., Bubas, G., & Coric, A. (2012). Mobilising students’ grammar skills through collaborative e-tivities with Web 2.0 tools. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 34, 132-136.
Kumaravadivelu, B. (2006). Understanding language teaching: From method to postmethod. Routledge.
McCrostie, J. (2007). Examining learner vocabulary notebooks. ELT Journal, 61(3), 246-255.
O'malley, J. M., O'Malley, M. J., Chamot, A. U., & O'Malley, J. M. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge university press.
Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language learning strategies-What every teacher should know. Heinle & Heinle.
Petersen, G. (2003). The effects of reading, television viewing, and extracurricular activities on student academic achievement. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Arkansas State University, Arkansas, USA Retrieved September, 1, 2012.
Pham, Q. H. P. (2020). Goal Setting in the Efl Classroom: Students' Writing Competence, Linguistic Development, and Perspectives. Michigan State University.
Poehner, M. E. (2008). Dynamic assessment: A Vygotskian approach to understanding and promoting L2 development (Vol. 9). Springer Science & Business Media.
Rastle, K., Lally, C., Davis, M. H., & Taylor, J. (2021). The dramatic impact of explicit instruction on learning to read in a new writing system. Psychological Science, 32(4), 471-484.
Riazi, A. (1997). Acquiring disciplinary literacy: A social-cognitive analysis of text production and learning among Iranian graduate students of education. Journal of Second Language Writing, 6(2), 105-137.
Rose, H., Briggs, J. G., Boggs, J. A., Sergio, L., & Ivanova-Slavianskaia, N. (2018). A systematic review of language learner strategy research in the face of self-regulation. System, 72, 151-163.
Saeidi, M., & Hosseinpour, A. (2013). The effect of dynamic assessment as an instructional tool on Iranian EFL learners’ vocabulary learning. Journal of basic and applied scientific research, 3(10), 421-429.
Sasaki, M., Mizumoto, A., & Murakami, A. (2018). Developmental trajectories in L2 writing strategy use: A self‐regulation perspective. The modern language journal, 102(2), 292-309.
SeyedErfani, S., & Agha Ebrahimiyan, A. (2013). Web 2.0 incorporated dynamic assessment to assess writing ability of Iranian EFL learners. Global Journal of Human Social Science Linguistics & Education, 13(14), 49-55.
Smith, H. (2005). The writing experiment strategies for innovative creative writing. Melbourne: Allen & Unwin.
Stirling, B. (2021). Speaking and writing strategies for the TOEFL iBT. Nova Press.
Sundari, H., Febriyanti, R. H., & Saragih, G. (2018). Using Task-based Materials in Teaching Writing for EFL Classes in Indonesia. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature, 7(3), 119-124.
Victori, M. (1999). An analysis of writing knowledge in EFL composing: A case study of two effective and two less effective writers. System, 27(4), 537-555.
Wanner, T., & Palmer, E. (2018). Formative self-and peer assessment for improved student learning: the crucial factors of design, teacher participation and feedback. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 43(7), 1032-1047.
Wei, X. (2020). Assessing the metacognitive awareness relevant to L1-to-L2 rhetorical transfer in L2 writing: The cases of Chinese EFL writers across proficiency levels. Assessing Writing, 44, 100452.
William, D. (2013). Assessment: The Bridge between Teaching and Learning. Voices from the Middle, 21(2), 15-20.
Zabihi, R. (2018). The role of cognitive and affective factors in measures of L2 writing. Written Communication, 35(1), 32-57.
Zhao, C. G., & Liao, L. (2021). Metacognitive strategy use in L2 writing assessment. System, 98, 102472.