The Investigation of Integrative, Instrumental, Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation of Language learners in the foreign settings (Research Article)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associate professor, Imam Khomeini International University, Gazvin. Iran.

2 Ph.D. candidate of Linguistics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor of Teaching Persian to Speakers of Other Languages Department, Imam Khomeini International University, Gazvin, Iran.



Research has not investigated the motivation of students toward learning Persian as a foreign/second language. This study examines the integrative, instrumental, intrinsic, and extrinsic types of motivation among language learners learning Persian as a second language. A questionnaire consisting of 40 questions, adapted from Gardner (2001), Ryan and Deci (2000), and Noels et al. (2001), was used to collect the required data. Statistical procedures were followed to analyze the data from 135 (59 females and 73 males) language learners. Results showed that integrative and extrinsic were respectively the most and the least significant forms of motivation among these participants. They reasoned that they mainly learn Persian language to understand Persian art, literature and history, increase their knowledge, and communicate with Iranians. Variables such as gender, education, and age showed significant differences among the males and females concerning instrumental and intrinsic types of motivation. Furthermore, whereas the results indicated significant variation between the participants’ education levels and their integrative motivation, there was not any significant relationship between the age and motivation.


Article Title [فارسی]

بررسی انگیزه‌های سازگاری، ابزاری، درونی و بیرونی یادگیرندگان زبان در بافت کشورهای خارجی

Authors [فارسی]

  • امیررضا وکیلی فرد 1
  • شراره خالقی زاده 2
  • لیلا گل پور 3
1 دانشیار، دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی (ره)، قزوین، ایران.
2 دانشجوی دکتری، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.
3 استادیار گروه آموزش زبان فارسی به غیرفارسی زبانان، دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی (ره)، قزوین، ایران.
Abstract [فارسی]

تاکنون پژوهشی به بررسی انگیزه فارسی‌آموزان غیرایرانی در محیط یادگیری زبان فارسی به عنوان زبان خارجی نپرداخته است. از این رو، پژوهش حاضر می‌کوشد انگیزش‌های سازگاری، ابزاری، درونی و بیرونی را که از مهمترین انواع انگیزه‌های مربوط به حوزه‌ی آموزش زبان است، در میان فارسی‌آموزان غیرایرانی در محیط یادگیری زبان خارجی مورد بررسی قرار دهد. برای جمع‌آوری اطلاعات از پرسش‌نامه‌ای شامل 40 پرسش برگرفته از پژوهش‌های گاردنر (2001)، رایان و دسی (2000) و نوئلز و همکاران (2001) استفاده گردیده است. داده‌ها با استفاده از آزمون‌های آماری در مورد 135 (59 زن و 73 مرد) زبان آموز بررسی شد. نتایج آزمون‌ها نشان داد که انگیزش سازگاری مهمترین عامل انگیزشی در یادگیری زبان فارسی به عنوان زبان خارجی و انگیزش بیرونی کم اهمیت‌ترین عامل انگیزشی بوده است. شاخص‌های فهم هنر و تاریخ ادبیات زبان فارسی، گسترش دانش، علاقه به یادگیری زبان و علاقه به ارتباط با ایرانیان، از مهمترین شاخص‌ها در انگیزش فارسی‌‌آموزان غیرایرانی جهت یادگیری فارسی به عنوان زبان خارجی بوده است. همچنین در مورد تاثیر جنسیت، مقطع تحصیلی و سن بر انواع انگیزه‌های فارسی‌آموزان، نتایج نشان داد که فقط در مورد انگیزش‌های ابزاری، و درونی، تفاوت در میان زنان و مردان معناداری ود. در خصوص انگیزش سازگاری در ‌میان مقاطع مختلف تحصیلی تفاوت معنادار بود، اما در بازه‌های سنی مختلف، تفاوت معنا‌داری در مورد انگیزش‌ها وجود نداشت.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • انگیزه سازگاری
  • انگیزه ابزاری
  • انگیزه درونی
  • انگیزه بیرونی
  • فارسی‌آموز
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