Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of English , Faculty of Humanities, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

2 Department of English, Faculty of Foreign Languages, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

3 Department of English, Faculty of Humanities, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran


This study intended to elaborate on critical thinking based teaching strategies high school EFL teachers in Iran integrate into their teaching process. An edited version of an email-based questionnaire by Barnhill (2010) has been put into use to distribute the teaching strategies survey in four different provinces (Yazd, Lorestan, Fars and Kordestan). One hundred and twenty teachers answered it completely showing 75.94 percent of response rate .Not an empirical layout was utilized to investigate the most effective and frequently used strategies and the relations between the two variables of frequency of use and perception of effectiveness. Means, frequencies, standard deviations, percentages, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), correlation coefficient, and five-point Likert scale were utilized for the purpose of the data analysis. The items rank-ordering pointed out that among the 50 items "questioning and challenging students to consider all views" was rated as the most frequently used and "creative projects in-class involving various materials" was distinguished as the most effective. From 50 strategies, EFA determined four factors reducing the 50 critical thinking based teaching strategies. The findings showed a positive and direct relation between perception of effectiveness and frequency of use for every one of the four variables.


Main Subjects

Arends, R. I. (1998). Learning to teach (4th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw – Hill.
Azin, N., & Heidari Tabrizi, H. (2017). The Relationship between critical thinking ability of Iranian English translation students and their translation ability. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 6(3), 81-95.Retrieved from http://www.academypublication .com/php/tpls.
Barnhill, E. J. (2010). Scrutinizing critical thinking based strategies: Perceptions of liberal arts faculty (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global Database. (UMI No.  3421027)
Bloom, B. (Ed.). (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives, handbook I: Cognitive domain. New York, NY: David McKay Company.
Chamot, A. (1995). Creating a community of thinkers in the ESL/EFL classroom. TESOL Matters, 5(5), 1-16.
Creswell, J.W. & Plano Clark, V.L. (2011). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research, (2nd ed.). London, England: Sage.
Curry, M. J. (1999). Critical thinking: Origins, applications, and limitations for post-secondary students of English as a second language (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED436976).
Danaye Tous, M. & Haghighi, S. (2016). Developing critical thinking with debate: Evidence from Iranian male and female students. International Journal of Research Studies in Language Learning, 3(2), 55-68.
Davidson, B. (1994). Critical thinking: A perspective and prescriptions for language teachers. The Language Teacher, 18(4), 20-26.
Dennis, D. H., & Hudson, C. C. (2007). Workforce education and two important viewpoints. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 44(2), 89-98.
Dillman, D. A., Smyth, J. D., & Christian, L. M. (2009). Internet, mail, and mixed-mode surveys: The tailored design method (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.
Duron, R., Limbach, B., & Waugh, W. (2006). Critical thinking framework for any discipline. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 17(2), 160-166.
Ghanizadeh, A., Moafian, M. (2011). Critical thinking and emotional intelligence: investigating the relationship among EFL learners and the contribution of age and gender. Iranian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 14(1), 23-48.
Haghani, F., Aminian, B., Kamali, F., & Jamshidian, S. (2011). Critical thinking skills and their relationship with emotional intelligence in medical students of introductory clinical medicine course in Isfahan University of medical sciences. Iranian Journal of Medical Education, 10(5), 48-59.
Halpern, D. F. (1999). Teaching for critical thinking: Helping college students develop the skills and dispositions of a critical thinker. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 80, 69-74.
Halpern, D. F. (2001). Assessing the effectiveness of critical thinking instruction. The Journal of General Education, 50(4), 270-286. doi:10.1353/jge.2001.0024
Hasanzadeh, R., & Shahmohamadi, F. (2011). Study of emotional intelligence and learning strategies. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 1824 –1829.
Hawley, W. D. (Ed.). (2007). The keys to effective schools: Educational reform as continuous improvement (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Horowitz, G. (1981). Sadistic statistics: An introduction to statistics for the social & behavioral sciences. Wayne, NJ: Avery Publishing Group.
Kamgar, N. & Jadidi, E. (2016). Exploring the relationship of Iranian EFL learners' critical thinking and self-regulation with their reading comprehension ability .Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 232, 776-783. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.10.105                                        
Mahmoodi, M. H., & Dehghannezhad, M. (2015). The effect of teaching critical thinking skills on the language learning strategy use of EFL learners across different EQ levels. Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning, 7(16). 55-84. Retrieved from https://journals.
Miliron, M. D. & De Los Santo, G. E. (2004). Making the most of community colleges on the road ahead. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 28(2), 105-122. doi: 10.1080/10668920490253582.
Morgan, G. A., Leech, N. L., Gloeckner, G. W., & Barrett, K. C. (2007). SPSS for introductory statistics: Use and interpretation (3rd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Nikoopour, J., Farsani, M. A., & Nasiri, M. (2011). On the relationship between critical thinking and language learning strategies among Iranian EFL learners. Life, 18(3), 195-200.
Nosratinia, M., Ghanbari Asiabar, & M., Sarabchian, E. (2014). Exploring the relationship between Iranian EFL learners’ language learning strategies and critical thinking. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World, 5(2), 335-345.
Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. New York, NY: Newbury House.
Patton, M.Q. (2000).Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Paul, R. W. (1993). The logic of creative and critical thinking. American Behavioral Scientist, 37(1), 21-39.
Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2008). The miniature guide to critical thinking concepts and tools. Tomales, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking.
Pithers, R. T., & Soden, R. (2000). Critical thinking in education: A review. Educational Research, 42(3), 237-249.
Rabi’ee, B. (2010). The effect of practicing analysis and synthesis on EFL learners’ critical thinking and reading comprehension skill. (Unpublished master's thesis). Sabzevar Tarbiat Moallem University,Iran.
Rojewski, J. W. (2002). Preparing the workforce of tomorrow: A conceptual framework for career and technical education. Journal of Vocational Education Research, 27(1), 7-35.
Rudd, R. D. (2007). Defining Critical Thinking. Techniques, 82(7), 46-49.
Scott, S. (2008). Perceptions of students’ learning critical thinking through debate in a technology classroom: A case study. The Journal of Technology Studies, 34(1), 39-44.
 Tabačková, Z. (2015). Outside the classroom thinking inside the classroom walls: Enhancing students’ critical thinking through reading literary texts. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences186, 726-731. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.04.042
Tabatabaei, O., & Parsafar, M. (2012). The effect of self-directed learning on critical thinking of Iranian EFL learners. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 2(2), 55-64.
Tarvin, W., & Al-Arishi, A. (1991). Rethinking communicative language teaching: Reflection and the EFL classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 25(1), 9-27.
Timpson, W., & Doe, S. (2008). Concepts and choices for teaching: Meeting the challenges in higher education (2nd ed.). Madison, WI: Atwood Publishing.
Tuzlukova, V., & Al-Busaidi, S. (2020).Critical thinking in the language classroom: Teacher beliefs and methods. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 25, 615-633.
Zare, M., & Biria, R. (2018). Contributory role of critical thinking in enhancing reading comprehension ability of Iranian ESP students. IJREE, 3 (3), 111-123.