The Role of Literature-Based Activities and Emotional Intelligence in WhatsApp Assisted Writing of Iranian Engineering Students

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 Department of English, University of Isfahan, Isfahan

2 Department of English, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

10.22034/elt.2020.11467

Abstract

The aim of this study was fourfold: (1) to investigate the effect of literature-based activities on the accuracy of Iranian Engineering students’ writing (2) to examine the effect of literature-based activities on the accuracy of their WhatsApp assisted writing (3) to determine whether their emotional intelligence (EI) increases through literature-based activities in a WhatsApp assisted setting and (4) to survey the effect of literature-based activities and the produced emotional intelligence on the complexity and lexical diversity of students’ WhatsApp assisted writing. In phase I, as students went through literature-based activities, no significant differences of accuracy were found; despite the fact that the mean difference and standard deviation scores were indicative of effective treatment, literature-based activities. In phase II, the results obtained from the analytic procedures of literature-based activities on the accuracy of students’ WhatsApp assisted writing showed that the experimental group showed higher accuracy of writing. In phase III, the result of emotional intelligence improvement was more remarkable in the WhatsApp assisted writing. Additionally, the WhatsApp assisted written productions were significantly more diverse in using lexis, t-units and clauses but not other parameters of complexity. The results have some implications for teachers and researchers in the ESP setting. 

Keywords


Article Title [فارسی]

نقش فعالیت های ادبی محور و هوش هیجانی بر روی نوشتار دانشجویان ایرانی رشته مهندسی در محیط واتس آپ

Authors [فارسی]

  • ژاله بهشتی 1
  • داریوش نژادانصاری 2
  • حسین براتی 1
1 گروه زبان، دانشگاه اصفهان
2 گروه زبان دانشگاه اصفهان
Abstract [فارسی]

این مطالعه چهار هدف داشت 1. بررسی تاثیر فعالیت های ادبی محور بر روی صحت نوشتار دانشجویان ایرانی رشته مهندسی 2. بررسی تاثیر فعالیت های ادبی محور بر روی صحت نوشتار دانشجویان ایرانی رشته مهندسی در محیط واتس آپ 3.بررسی تاثیر فعالیت های ادبی محور در محیط واتس آپ بر روی هوش هیجانی 4. بررسی تاثیر فعالیت های ادبی محور و هوش هیجانی ایجاد شده در محیط واتس آپ بر روی تنوع لغات و پیچیدگی نوشتار دانشجویان ایرانی. در مرحله اول، هنگامی که دانشجویان فعالیت های ادبی محور را پشت سر می گذارند ، تفاوت معنی داری از نظر تاثیر آنها بر روی صحت نوشتار مشاهده نشد. علی رغم این که میانگین اختلاف و انحراف معیار نشانگر تاثیر مؤثر فعالیت های ادبی محور بر روی نوشتار بود. درمرحله دوم، نتایج به دست آمده از روشهای تحلیلی فعالیت های ادبی محور بر روی صحت نگارش دانشجویان در محیط واتس اپ نشان داد که گروه آزمایشی دقت بیشتری در نوشتن داشتند. در مرحله سوم، نتیجه تاثیر این فعالیت ها در محیط واتس آپ بر روی هوش هیجانی دانشجویان قابل توجه بود. علاوه بر این، نوشتار آنها در محیط واتس اپ به طور معناداری متنوع تر در استفاده از واژگان ، تی یونیت ها و بندها بود. اما تاثیر به سزایی در پارامترهای دیگر پیچیدگی نداشت. نتایج حاوی پیامدهایی برای معلمان و محققان در حوزه تدریس زبان به دانشجویان ایرانی دارد.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • فعالیت های ادبی محور
  • نوشتار در محیط واتس اپ
  • هوش هیجانی
  • صحت
  • پیچیدگی
  • تنوع لغات
Abdolrezapour, P.,  & Tavakoli, M.  (2012). The relationship between emotional intelligence and EFL learners’ achievement in reading comprehension. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 6(1), 1–13.
Ahmadian, M. & Tavakoli, M. (2011). The effects of simultaneous use of careful online planning and task repetition on accuracy, complexity, and fluency in EFL learners’ oral production. Language Teaching Research, 15(1).
Aki, O. (2006). Is emotional intelligence or mental intelligence more important in language learning? Journal of Applied Science, 1(6), 66–70.
Andujar,  A. (2016). Benefits of mobile instant messaging to develop ESL writing. System, 62, 63–76.
Barrett,K.  et al. (2013). Handbook of self-regulatory processes in development: New directions and international perspectives. Psychology Press.
Beheshti, Z. et al.  (2020). The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence, Lexical Diversity and the Syntactic Complexity of EFL Learners’ Written Productions. Journal of Modern Research in English Language Studies, 7(1), 133–161.
Bikowski, D.  & Vithanage, R. (2016). Effects of web-based collaborative writing on individual L2 writing development. Language Learning & Technology, 20(1), 79–99.
Bin- hadi, W. et al. (2019). A study of EFL students’ attitudes, motivation and anxiety towards whatsapp as a language learning. Journal of Arab World English, (Special Issue on CALL Number 5), 289–298.
Bueno-Alastuey,  M. (2013). Interactional feedback in synchronous voice-based computer mediated communication: Effect of dyad. System, 41(3), 543–555.
Chang, H., & Windeatt, S. (2016). Developing collaborative learning practices in an online
language course. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(8), 1271–1286.
Cunico, L. et al. (2012). Developing empathy in nursing students: A cohort longitudinal study. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 21, 2016–2025.
Dashtestani, R. (2016). Moving bravely towards mobile learning: Iranian students’use of mobile devices for learning English as a foreign language. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(4), 836–853.
Dobao, A. (2012). Collaborative writing tasks in the L2 classroom: Comparing group, pair, and individual work. Journal of Second Language Writing, 21, 40–58.
Ellis, R., & Yuan, F. (2004). The effects of planning on fluency, complexity, and accuracy in second language narrative writing. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26, 59–84.
Ellis, R. (2012). The study of second language acquisition (2nd editio). Oxford: Oxford University press.
Fahim, M., & Pishghadam, R. (2007). On the role of emotional psychometric and verbal intelligences in the academeic achievement of university students majoring in English language. Asian EFL Journal, 9(4), 240–253.
Foster, P., & Skehan, P. (1996). The influence of planning on performance in task-based learning: Studies in second language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 18, 299–324.
Ghosn, I. (2002). Four good reasons to use literature in primary school. ELT Journal, 56(2), 172–179.
Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. New York: Bantam Books.
Hafner, C., & Miller, L. (2019). English in the disciplines: A Multidimensional model for ESP course design. London, England: Routledge
Hanaoka, O., & Izumi, S. (2012). Noticing and uptake: Addressing pre-articulated covert problems in L2 writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 21, 332–347.
Hedge. T. (2000). Oxford Handbooks for Language Teachers. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kim, S.  et al. (2010). Application and evaluation of small group and music activity in a communication course. Journal of Korean Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing, 19(3), 307–317.
Korpi, S. et al. (2016). Investigating the relationship between emotional intelligence and writing complexity, accuracy and fluency among graduate students of TEFL. Modern Journal of Language Teaching Method, 6(1), 234–243.
Lund, A. (2008). Wikis: A collective approach to language production. ReCall, 20(1), 35–54.
MacWhinney, B. (2000). The Childs project: Tools for analyzing talk (3rd editio). Mahwah: NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Mahdi, H. (2018). Effectiveness of mobile devices on vocabulary learning: A meta- analysis. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 56(1), 134–154.
McCarthy, P. et al. (2007). VocD: A theoretical and empirical evaluation. Language Testing, 24(4), 459–488.
Miall, D. (2005). Feeling in literary reading: Five paradox.University of Alberta.
Ortega, L. (2007). Meaningful L2 practice in foreign language classrooms: A cognitive-interactionist SLA perspective. (R. M. DeKeyse, Ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Parker, J.,  et al. (2004). Emotional intelligence and academic success: Examining the transition from high school to university. Personality and Individual Differences, 36(1), 163–172.
Pishghadam, R. (2009). A quantitative analysis of the relationship between emotional intelligence and foreign language learning. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 6(1), 31–41.
Preston, B. (2003), A sense of wonder: reading and writing through literature. White
Plains, NY: Longman/Pearson Education.
Rahimpour, M., & Hosseini, P. (2010). The impact of task complexity on L2 learners’ written narratives. English Language Teaching, 3(3), 198–205.
Robinson, P. (2001). Task complexity, task difficulty, and task production: Exploring interactions in a componential framework. Applied Linguistics, 22(1), 27–57.
Rouhani, A. (2008). An investigation into emotional intelligence, Foreign language anxiety and empathy through a cognitive-affective course in an EFL context. Linguistik Online, 34(2), 41–57.
Sockett, G., & Toffoli, D. (2012). Beyond learner autonomy: A dynamic systems view of the informal learning of English invirtual online communities. ReCALL, 24(2), 138–151.
Shao, K.,  et al. (2013). The relationship between EFL students’ emotional intelligence and writing achievement. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 7(2), 107–124.
Skehan, P., & Foster, P. (1999). The influence of task structure and processing conditions on narrative retellings. Language Learning, 49, 93–120.
Skehan, P. (2009). Modeling second language performance: Integrating complexity, accuracy, fluency, and lexis. Applied Linguistics, 30, 510–532.  
Speck, R. (1985). Literature, reading, writing, and ESL: Bridging the gaps. TESOL Quarterly, 19(4), 703–725.
SriRahayu, E. (2016). Igniting a brighter future of EFL teaching and learning in multilingual societies : Using Google Docs on collaborative writing techniques for teaching English to non English depatment students. University of Bengkulu.
Storch, N. (2013). Collaborative writing in L2 classrooms: New perspectives on language and education. Bristol: Multilingual Matters Dimensions.
Swain, M., & Watanabe, Y. (2012). Languaging: Collaborative dialogue as a source of second language learning. (C. Chapelle, Ed.). Oxford: The encyclopedia of applied linguistics: Wiley-Blackwell.
Tasneen, W. (1996). Literary texts in the language classroom: A study of teachers and students views at international schools in Bangkok. Asian EFL Journal, 12(4).
Tavakoli, P.,& Skehan, P. (2005). Strategic planning, task structure, and performance testing. In R. Ellis (Ed.).Planning and task performance in a second language (pp. 239 - 273). Amsterdam: Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Vermont Department of Education. (2002). Writing enbchmarks and writing rubrics for K–4: Response to literature. VT: Vermont Department of Education.
Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Wang, Y.  (2015). Promoting collaborative writing through wikis: A new approach for advancing innovative and active learning in an ESP context. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 28(6), 499–512.
Wigglesworth, G., & Storch, N. (2009). Pair versus individual writing: Effects on fluency, complexity and accuracy. Language Testing, 26(3), 445–466.
Wu, J. (2019). The use of mobile devices in language learning: A survey on Chinese university learners’ experiences. CALL EJ, 20(3), 6-20.
Yilmaz, A. (2015). Short stories via computers in EFL classrooms: An empirical study for reading and writing skills. The Reading Matrix, 15(1), 41–53.
Zhang, M. (2018). Collaborative writing in the EFL classroom: The effects of L1 and L2 use. System, 76, 1–12.