How Iranian EFL Learners, Persian Native Speakers, and English Native Speakers Attempt to Manage Rapport in Service Encounters

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 Assistant Professor of TEFL, University of Isfahan

2 MA Student, University of Isfahan

3 Assistant Professor, University of Isfahan

Abstract

This study aims to examine the cross-cultural similarities and differences in the use of rapport management strategies (rapport enhancement, rapport maintenance, rapport neglect, and rapport challenge) in the complaints during service encounters based on Spencer Oatey’s (2008) model. To this end, 90 participants (30 Persian native speakers, 30 Iranian EFL (English as a foreign language) learners, and 30 English speakers) were asked to complete a role-play Discourse Completion Task in four different situations. The study argues that: (1) the use of rapport management strategies is universal; all the groups used all kinds of rapport management strategies; (2) the use of rapport management strategies is culture-specific; the participants in each group differently used the intended strategies; and (3) the socio-pragmatic competence of EFL learners is sometimes different from that of the native speakers of English; it goes through developmental stages and is influenced by L1 norms. The study concludes that teachers should condition the communicative tasks used inside the class with factors such as the relationship among the interlocutors to help EFL learners develop a pragmatic competence comparable to that of the native speakers. Teachers can also resort to modern technologies to provide EFL learners with the opportunity to communicate with native speakers and receive feedback with regard to the cultural appropriacy of the forms produced.

Keywords


Article Title [فارسی]

مقایسه مدیریت ایجاد ارتباط در بین فارسی‌زبانان، انگلیسی‌زبانان و فراگیران ایرانی زبان انگلیسی

Authors [فارسی]

  • محمد امیریوسفی 1
  • ریحانه ساسانی نژاد 2
  • زهرا امیریان 3
1 استادیار گروه آموزش زبان انگلیسی، دانشگاه اصفهان
2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه اصفهان
3 استادیار، دانشگاه اصفهان
Abstract [فارسی]

هدف از انجام این پژوهش، مقایسه فارسی‌زبانان، انگلیسی‌زبانان و فراگیران ایرانی زبان انگلیسی در استفاده از راهکارهای مؤدبانه مدیریت رابطه (مدیریت وجهه، مدیریت حقوق اجتماعی و التزام‌ها و مدیریت هدف تعاملات) مورد استفاده در کنش گفتار شکایت می‌باشد. در این تحقیق ، 90 شرکت کننده که شامل30 نفر فارسی‌زبان، 30 نفر دانشجوی ایرانی رشته زبان انگلیسی و 30 نفر انگلیسی‌زبان می‌باشند شرکت نمودند و از آنها درخواست گردید تا در نقش مشتری فرم  DCT را در چهار موقعیت مختلف کامل نمایند. نتایج تحقیق نشان داد که استفاده از راهکارهای مدیریت رابطه جهان‌شمول بوده و توسط هر سه گروه شرکت کننده مورد استفاده قرار گرفت هر چند میزان استفاده در فرهنگ‌های مختلف متفاوت است؛ استفاده از این راهکارها می‌تواند تحت تاثیر عوامل فرهنگی-اجتماعی قرار گیرد. همچنین نتایج نشان داد که توانش زبانی-اجتماعی زبان‌آموزان ایرانی در بعضی جهات متفاوت با توانش زبانی-اجتماعی انگلیسی‌زبانان می‌باشد. توانش زبانی-اجتماعی دارای مراحل رشد می‌باشد که در هر یک از این مراحل و تا قبل از رسیدن به توانشی مشابه به توانش انگلیسی‌زبانان، زبان‌آموزان گاهی از اصول و الگوهای زبان مادری خود استفاده می‌نمایند و یا ساختارها را بر اساس اطلاعات در دسترس به کار می‌برند و سپس از طریق بازخورد دریافتی، توانش خود را جهت دهی می‌نمایند. لذا مدرسان جهت کمک به زبان‌آموزان برای طی کردن هر چه بهتر این مراحل، باید فعالیت‌هایی را طراحی نمایند که با انجام آنها زبان‌آموزان با اصول ارتباطی در زبان انگلیسی آشنا شوند.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • گفتار شکایت
  • مدل اسپنسر اوتی
  • مدیریت وجهه
  • مدیریت حقوق اجتماعی و التزام
  • مدیریت هدف تعاملات
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