Identification and Distribution of Interactional Contexts in EFL Classes: The Effect of Two Contextual Factors

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Ph.D.Candidate, University of Tehran (Corresponding author)

2 Associate Professor, University of Tehran

Abstract

This study aims at empirically furthering awareness of the organization of interaction in EFL classes. Informed by the methodological framework of conversation analysis, it draws upon a corpus of 52 three-hour naturally-occurring classroom interaction to identify classroom interactional contexts based on the structuring of the pedagogic goals in turn-taking sequences. Conversation analytic procedures were then paired with quantitative procedures to explore the distribution of the identified contexts within the macro-context of classroom discourse and to investigate the effect of interaction-external factors, i.e., teachers’ training and learners’ levels of language proficiency, on the distribution of the identified contexts. Analyses of extracts from the transcribed data led to the emergence of four interactional contexts: form-oriented, meaning-oriented, skill-oriented, and management-oriented. As to their distribution, form-oriented and skill-oriented contexts were found to be constitutive of the bulk of interaction, with meaning-oriented context comprising the smallest proportion. A two-way multivariate analysis of variance revealed that the distribution of all identified contexts was significantly affected by learners’ levels of language proficiency. Teachers’ training had a significant main effect on just form-oriented and management-oriented contexts. The findings of this study draw teachers and teacher educators’ attention to the necessity of a change in the status quo of EFL classroom interaction.

Keywords


Article Title [Persian]

شناسایی و توزیع بافت‌های تعاملی در کلاس‌های زبان بیگانه‌ی انگلیسی: بررسی تأثیر دو عامل محیطی

Authors [Persian]

  • مصطفی پورحاجی 1
  • سیدمحمد علوی 2
Abstract [Persian]

هدف مطالعه‌ی حاضر افزایش آگاهی در زمینه‌ی ساختار تعامل در کلاسهای زبان بیگانه‌ی انگلیسی است. با استفاده از چارچوب متدولوژیکی گفتمانکاوی، تعاملات کلاسی پنجاه و دو معلم به مدت سه ساعت ضبط و جمع‌آوری گردید تا بافت‌های تعاملیبر اساس اهداف آموزشی در توالی نوبت‌ها شناسایی شوند. سپس با تلفیق روش گفتمان‌کاوی با روش‌های کمی، توزیع بافت‌های تعاملی و تاثیر عوامل محیطی، شامل توانش زبانی شاگردان و تربیت (آموزش) معلمین، مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. با تحلیل گفتمان‌کاوانه‌ی اطلاعات تحریری، چهار بافت تعاملی، شامل بافت‌هایی با محوریت ساختار، معنا، مهارت، و مدیریت، مورد شناسایی قرار گرفت. بررسی توزیع بافت‌ها نشان داد که بخش عمده‌ای از تعاملات کلاسی با محوریت ساختار و مهارت‌های زبانی شکل می‌گیرند. در حالی که بافت معنامحور کمترین سهم را در تعاملات کلاسی دارد. تحلیل واریانس چند متغیره‌یدوسویه نشان داد که توزیع تمامیبافت‌های شناسایی شده تحت تأثیر سطح توانش زبانی شاگردان می‌باشد. اما آموزش معلمین تنها بر توزیع بافت‌ها با محوریت ساختار و مدیریت مؤثرند. یافته‌هایمطالعه‌ی حاضر توجه معلمین و مربیان تربیت معلم را به لزوم اصلاحات در وضعیت کنونی تعاملات کلاسی سوق می‌دهد.

Keywords [Persian]

  • تعاملات کلاسی
  • گفتمان‌کاوی
  • عوامل محیطی
  • بافت‌های تعاملی
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